: Botany : Optional Subject of Main Examination
1. Microbiology and Plant
Pathology: Viruses, bacteria, and plasmids -structure and reproduction.
General account of infection, Phytoimmunology. Applications of microbiology in
agriculture, industry, medicine and pollution control in air, soil and water.
Important plant diseases caused by
viruses, bacteria, mycoplasma, fungi and nematodes. Mode of infection and
dissemination. Molecular basis of infection and disease resistance/defence.
Physiology of parasitism and control measures. Fungal toxins.
Algae, Fungi, Bryophytes, Pteridophytes-structure and reproduction from
evolutionary viewpoint. Distribution of Cryptograms in India and their economic
3. Phanerogams: Gymnosperms:
Concept of Progy mo no sperms. Classification and distribution of Gymnosperms.
Salient features of Cycadales, Coniferales and Gnetales, their structures and
General account of Cycadofilicales, Bennettitales and Cordatitales.
Systematics, anatomy, embryology, palynology and phylogeny.
Comparative account of various
systems of Angiosperm Classification.
Study of angiospermic families - Magnoliaceae, Ranunculaceae, Brassicaceae
(Cruci-ferae), Rosaceae, Leguminosae, Euphorbiaceae, Malvaceaie,
Depterocarpaceae, Apiaceae (Umbellifeare), Asclepiadaceae,
Verbenaceae, Solanaceae, Rubiaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Assteraceae (Composite),
Poaceae (Gramineae), Arecaeae (Palmae), Liliaceae, Musaceae, Orchidaceae.
Stomata and their types. Anomalous
secondary growth, Anatomy of C 3 and C 4 plants.
Development of male and female
gametophy tes, Pollination, fertilization.
Endosperm-its development and function. Patterns of embryo development.
Polyembryony, apoximix. Applications of palynoiogy.
4. Plant Utility and
Exploitation: Origin of cultivated plants, Vavilovs centres of origin.
Plants as sources for food, fodder, fibbers, spices, beverages, drugs,
narcotics, insecticides, timber, gums, resins and dyes. Latex, cellulose Starch
and their products. Perfumery. Importance of EthnoBotany in Indian context.
Energy plantation. Botanical Gardens and Herbaria.
Totipotency, polarity, symmetry and differentiation. Cell, tissue, organ and
protoplast culture. Somatic hybrids and Cybrids.
Cell Bit logy:
Techniques of Cell Biology Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells -structural and
ultarastructural details. Structure and functions of extracellar matrix or ECM
(cell wall) and membranes-cell adhesion, membrane transport and vesicular
transport. Structure and function of cell organelles (chloroplasts,
mitochondria, ER, ribosomes, endosomes, lysosomes, Peroxisomes, hydrogenosome).
Nucleus, nucleolus, nuclear pore complex. Chromatin and nucleosome. Cell
signalling and cell receptors. Signal transduction (G-l proteins, etc). Mitosis
and meiosis; molecular basis of cell cycle. Numerical and structural variations
in chromosomes and their significance. Study of polytence. Study of polytene,
Iampbrush and B-chromosomes-structure, behaviour and significance.
2. Genetics, Molecular
Biology and Evolution: Development of genetics, and gene versus allele
cpncepts (Pseudoalleles). Quantitative genetics and multiple factors. Linkage
and crossing over-methods of gene mapping including molecular maps (idea of
mapping function). Sex chromosomes and sex-linked inheritance sex determination
and molecular basis of sex differentiation. Mutation (biochemical and molecular
basis). Cytoplasmic inheritance and cytoplasmic genes (including genetics of
male sterility). Prions and prion hypothesis.
Structure and synthesis of nucleic
acids and proteins. Genetic code and regulation of gene expression. Muitigene
mechanism and theories. Role of RNA in origin and evolution.
3. Plant Breeding,
Biotechnology and Biostatistics: Methods of plant
breeding-introduction, selection and hybridization (pedigree, backcross, mass
selection, bulk method). Male sterility and heterosis breeding. Use of apomixis
in plant breeding. Micropropagation and genetic engineering-methods of transfer
of genes and transgenic crops; development and use of molecular markers in plant
Standard deviation and coefficient
of variation (CV). Tests of significance (Z-test, t-test and chi-square tests).
Probability and distributions (normal, binomial and Poisson distributions).
Correlation and regression.
4. Physiology and
Biochemistry: Water relations, Mineral nutrition and ion transport,
mineral deficiencies. Photosynthesis-photochemical reactions.
Photophosphorylation and carbon pathways including C pathway (photorespiration),
C, C and CAM path ways. Respiration (anaerobic and aerobic, including
fermentation-electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation.
Chemiosmotic theory and ATP synthesis. Nitrogen fixation and nitrogen
metabolism. Enzymes, co-enzymes, energy transfer and energy conservation.
Importance of secondary metabolites. Pigments as photo receptors (plastidial
pigments and phytochrome). Photoperiodism and flowering, vernalization,
Growth substances-their chemical
nature, role and applications in agri-horticuiture, growth indices, growth
movements. Stress physiology (heat, water, salinity, metal). Fruitand seed
physiology. Dormancy, storage and germination of seed. Fruit ripening-its
molecular basis and manipulation.
5. Ecology and Plant
Geography: Ecological factors. Concepts and dynamics of community.
Plant succession. Concepts of biosphere. Ecosystems and their conservation.
Pollution and its control (including phytoremediation).
Forest types of
India-afforestation, deforestation and social forestry. Endangered plants,
endemism and Red Data Books. Biodiversity. Convention of Biological Diversity,
Sovereign Rights and Intellectual Property Rights. Biogeochemical cycles. Global