Psychology - Optional
Psychology (Optional) Syllabus for
1. Introduction to psychology :
Concept and definition of psychology. Nature and Scope. Branches of psychology.
Application of psychology to soceity and social problems.
2. Methods in Psychology :
Characteristics of psychological studies, Observation. Survey method, Clinical
and case study method. Experimental method. Application of the method.
3. Quantitive Analysis :
Measures of central tendency and dispersion. Correlation. Levels of measurement.
Reliability and validity. Application in test construction.
4. Physiological Psychology :
Structure of neuron, nerve impulses, synapse and neurotransmitters. Central and
peripheral nervous system-structure and neural control of behaviour. Hemispheric
specialisation. Endocrine system and hormonal control of behaviour. Application
of hemispheric knowledge to diagnostic purposes.
5. Development of human behaviour :
Individual Differences : Heredity and environment. Life span developent. Role of
early experience and mastering of developmental tasks. Sensitive or critical
periods of development in human life cycle and its application.
6. Perception :
Preceptual processes. Perceputal organsiation. Perception of form, colour, depth
and time. Perceptual readiness and constancy. Role of motivation, social and
cultural factors in perception. Application of knowledge of perception to skill
development (e.g. for certain jobs like that of driving, airline pilots etc.)
7. Learning :
Classical conditioning and operant conditioning. Modeling and observational
learning. Transfer of training. Learing and motivation. Application of the above
to the improvement of academic performance in education.
8. Memory :
Physiological basis of memory. Memory and forgetting. Measurement of memory
(Recall, Recognition, Relearning). Short term and long term memory. Theories of
forgetting (Decay and Interference theories and Repressive forgetting).
Application of Mnemonic devices etc, to improving memory.
9. Cognition and Language :
Concept of formation. Nature and development of thinking. Language and thought
and acquisition of language. Problem solving. Creative thinking and its
10. Intelligence and Aptitude :
Definition and concept. Theories and models of Intelligence. Measurement of
intelligence and aptitude. Exceptional intelligence. Mental retardation.
Concepts of multiple, emotional and artificial intelligence and their
11. Motivation and Emotion :
Definition and concept of instinct, needs, drives and motives. Theories of
motivation and their application (drive reduction theory, Maslow's motivational
hierarchy). Social motivation: Achievement, power, affiliation motives and
influence of early experiences. Physiological basis of emotion. Theories of
emotion (James-Lange and Cannon-Brad theories, cognitive physiological theory).
12. Personality :
Concepts and Definition of personality. Sutdy of personality (Trait, type and
eclectic approaches) Development of personality (Freud, Erikson, Biological and
socio-cultural determinants). Measurement of Personality (Projective tests,
pencil-paper tests). Application of personality profiles in fitting a person to
13. Adjustment and Stress :
Concept and definition. Factors affecting adjustment (frustration and conflict).
Sources of stress and reactions to stress. Coping with stress. Application of
stress management techniques.
14. Social Behaviour :
Socio-cultural factors and behaviour. Development of attitudes, stereotypes and
prejudice, Measurement of Attidutes (Thurstone, Likert attitude scale and
Bogardus Social Distance scale). Strategies for reducing prejudice and changing
atitude. Person perception, implicit personality theory and integrating
impressions. Application of person perception to impression management.
15. Application of Psychology :
Health and mental health (yoga, meditation and relaxation therapies). Education
(Programmed learning,. self instructional learning and learning styles).
Community (self help through group cohesiveness and leadership). Industry
(Assessment centre approach in selection, recruitment and training). Environment
(man-nature interaction, personal space concept, pollution reduction)
Information technology (Application to commercial, educational and health
Psychology (Optional) Syllabus for Main
Paper-I : Foundations of
1. Introduction : Psychology as a Science : Definitions and perspective.
Psychology in relation to other social and natural sciences. Use of
2. Methods of Psychology : Characteristics and components of methods in
psychology (induction, deduction and introspection). Observation, Survey,
Laboratory and field experiments. Clinical and Case study. Experimental and
quasi experimental methods.
3. Research methods and quantitative analysis : Major steps in
psychological research (problem statement, hypothesis formulation, research
design, sampling, tools of data collection, analysis and interpretation and
report writing). Fundamental versus applied research. Methods of data collection
(interview, observation, questionnaire and case study). Research Designs
(Ex-post facto and experimental). Application of statistical techniques (t-test,
one-way ANOVA correlation and regression and chi-square tests).
4. Development of Human Behaviour : The nature, origin and development.
Role of genetic and environmental factors in determining human behaviour.
Influence of cultural factors and socialisation. Life span development-the
critical periods and their handling, Mastery of the developmental tasks.
Influence of child rearing practices and its impact on the growth and
development of the individual, concept of national character.
5. Attention and perception : Attention - factors, influencing attention
including set and characteristics of stimulus. Sensation-concepts of threshold,
absolute and difference thresholds, signal detection and vigilance. Definition
and concept of perception, biological factors in perception. Perceptual
organisation-influence of past experiences, Perceptual defence-factors
influencing. Space and depth perception, size estimation and perceptual
6. Learning : Concepts and theories of learning (Pavlov, Skimer and
Piaget). The processes of extinction, discrimination and generalisation.
Programmed learning, probability learning, self instructional learning,
concepts, types and the schedules of reinforcement. Modelling and social
7. Memory : Concepts and definition of memory and forgetting, 7+/-2
concept and clumking Encoding, storage and retrieval. Factors influencing
retention and foregetting. Theories of forgetting (Repression, Decay and
Interference theories). The concept of reminiscence.
8. Thinking and Problem Solving : Concept formation processes. Reasoning
and problem solving. Creative thinking and fostering creativity. Information
processing. Decision making and judgment.
9. Intelligence and Aptitude : Concept and definition of Intelligence and
aptitude, Nature and theories of intelligence. Measurement of Intelligence and
aptitude Concepts and measurement of emotional and multiple intelligence.
10. Motivation and Emotion : Definition and concepts. Theories and physiological
basis of motivation and emotion. Measurement of motivation and emotion
Motivation and emotion-their effects on behaviour.
11. Personality : Concept and definition of personality. Theories of personality
(psychoanalytical, socio-cultural, interpersonal and developmental, humanistic,
behaviouristic, trait and type approaches). Measurement of personality
(projective tests, pencil-paper test). The Indian approach to Personality.
Training for personality development.
12. Language and Communication : Human language-properties, structure and
linguistic hierarchy, Language acquisition-predisposition, critical period
hypothesis. Theories of language development (Skinner, Chomsky), Process and
types of communication. Effective communication and training.
13. Attitudes, Values and Interests : Definitions, concepts of attitudes, values
and interests. Components ofattitudes, values and interests. Formation and
maintenance of attitudes. Measurement of attitudes, values and interests.
Theories of attitudes, and attitudes changes, strategies for fostering values.
14. Recent Trends : Computer application in the Psychological laboratory and
psychological testing. Artificial Intelligence. Psychocybernetics. Study of
consciousness-sleep-wake schedules; dreams, stimulus deprivation, meditation,
hypnotic/drug induced states. Extrasensory perception. Intersensory perception
: Issues and Applications
1. Psychological Measurement of Individual Diference : The nature of
individual differences. Characteristics and construction of standardized
psychological tests. Types of psychological tests. Use, misuse and limitation of
psychological tests. Ethical issues in the use of psychological tests.
2. Well being and Mental Disorders : Concept of health, positive health,
well being and ill health. Mental disorders (Anxiety disorders, mood disorders,
schizophernia and delusional disorders; personality disorders, substance abuse
disorders). Causal factors in mental disorders. Factors influencing positive
health, well being, life style and quality of life.
3. Therapeutic Approaches : Psychody-namic therapies. Behaviour
therapies. Client centered therapy. Cognitive therapies. Indigenous therapies
(Yoga, Reiki, Meditation) Biofeedback therapy. Prevention and rehabilitation of
the mentally ill.
4. Work Psychology and Organisational Behaviour : Personnel selection and
training. Use of Psychological tests in the industry. Training and human
resource development. Theories of work motivation. Leadership and participatory
management. Advertising and marketing.
5. Application of Psychology to Educational Field : Psychological
principles underlying effective teaching-learning process.Learning styles
Gifted, retarded, learning disabled and their training. Training for improving
memory and better academic achievement. Personality development and value
education, Educational, vocational guidance and Career counselling. Use of
Psychological tests in educational institutions.
6. Communty Psychology : Definition and concept of Community Psychology.
Role of community psychologists in social change. Use of small groups in social
action. Arousing community consciousness and action for handling social
problems. Group decision making and leadership for social change.
7. Rehabilitation Psychology : Primary, secondary and tertiary prevention
programmes-role of psychologists. Organising of services for rehabilitation of
physically, mentally and socially challenged persons including old persons.
Rehabilitation of persons suffering from substance abuse, juvenile delinquency,
criminal behaviours. Rehabilitation of victims of violence. Rehabiliation of
8. Application of Psychology to disadvantaged groups : The concepts of
disadvantaged, deprivation and socially deprived. Social, physical, cultural and
economic consequences of disadvantaged and deprived groups. Educating and
motivating the disadvantaged towards development.
9. Psychological and the problem of social integration : The concept of
social integration. The problem of caste, class, religion and language conflicts
and prejudice. Nature and manifestation of prejudice between the ingroup and
outgroup. Casual factors of such conflicts and prejudices. Psychological
strategies for handling the conflicts and prejudices. Measures to achieve social
10. Application of psychology in Information Technology and Mass media : The
present scenario of information technology and the mass media boom and the role
of psychologists. Selection and training of psychology professionals to work in
the field of IT and mass media. Distance learning through IT and mass media.
Entrepre neurship through e-commerce. Multilevel marketing. Impact of TV and
fostering value through IT and mass media. Psychological consequences of recent
developments in Information Technology.
11. Application of Psychology in the field of Defence : The concept of
Military psychology, Aviation psychology and Psychological warfare Role of
Military psychologists in the defence. Selection, recruitment and training of
personnel. Facilitating the process of adjustment of personnel to military
life-Role of Counselling. Devising Psychological tests for defence personnel.
Psychological disorders due to war. Human engineering in Defence.
12. Psychology and Economic development : Achievement motivation and
economic development. Characteristics of entrepreneurial behavior. Motivating
and Training people for entrepreneurship and economic development. Women
Entrepreneurs. Consumer rights and consumer courts.
13. Application of psychology to environment and related fields :
Environmental psychology-effects of noise, pollution and crowding. Population
psychology-psychological consequences of population explosion and high
population density. Motivating for small family norms. Impact of rapid
scientific and technological growth on degradation of environment.
14. Other applications of psychology : Sports psychology-improving
performance of sports, personnel, psychology and understanding of political
behaviour. Voting behaviours. Psychology of corruption and strategies to deal
with Psychology of terrorism.
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