CAPF-AC (Assistant Commandant) Exam Study Material :
History - Mughal Society, Culature & Religion
History : Mughal Society, Culature & Religion
Though Babur is known to have commissioned the construction of several
monuments, he was more fond of gardens.
Babur issued instructions that gardens and orchards be laid out in all large
cities in his domains.
- Humayun laid the foundation of the city Din Panah at Delhi.
- Humayun’s tomb is called the proto type of Taj Mahal. It has a double
dome of marble, while the central dome is octagonal. It was built by his
widow Haji Begum.
- The garden and the gateway are to be found in all Mughal-style tombs.
- Sher- Shah probably complete’ the fort and also built the Qala-i-Kuhna
mosque within its precincts, Also attributed to Sher Shah is the huge
mausoleum of his father at Sasaram in Bihar.
- Sher Shah constructed his own mausoleum at Sasaram, which was then the
largest tomb in India.
- Building’s built by Akbar are Agra Fort (1565), Lahore Palace (1572),
Fatehpur Sikri’, Buland Darwaza and Allahabad Fort (1583).
- The architecture at Fatehpur Sikri is an excellent blending of Persian,
Central Asian and various Indian (Bengal and Gujarat) styles . It is also
known as Epic poem in red sandstone.
- Indian tradition includes deep eaves, balconies and Kiosks. Central
Asian Style is evident in the use of glazed blue tiles.
- Two unusual buildings at Fatehpur Sikri are Panch Mahal & Diwan-i-Khas
- The Panch Mahal has the plan of Buddhist Vihara.
- The Jodhabai’s Palace, Diwan-i-Aam, Diwan-i-Khas are Indian in their
- Buland Darwaja (built after Gujarat victory), formed the main entrance
to Fatehpur Sikri. It is built in the Iranian style of half dome portal.
- Salim Chisti’s tomb (redone in Marble by Jahangir is the first Mughal
building in Pure marble), palaces of Birbal, Anup Talao, Mariyam Mahal are
also inside the Fatehpur Sikri.
- He built the Jahangiri Mahal in Agra fort according to Hindu design
based on Man Mandir.
- Haroon Minor—Tower built by Akbar in memory of his elephant (Haroon).
- He also began to build his own tomb at Sikandara which, was later
completed by Jahangir.
- Jahangir was a patron of painting rather than architecture.The most well
known building of his reign was the mausoleoum he built for his father at
Sikandara, near Agra, which is said to resemble the Parch Mahal at Fatehpur
- Jahangir’s buildings at Agra fort were later pulled down by Shah
Jahan.We do know, however, that beneath the viewing balcony (jharoka) from
which he gave darshan to the public, he had installed life-size marble
statues of the defeated Rana of Mewar, Amar Singh and his son, Karan, much
as Akbar had placed statues of the Rajput heroes Jaimal and Fatha outside
- Jahangir was immensely interested in gardens; the most famous of those
associated with him being in Srinagar. His queen, Nur Jahan’s most well
known architectural project is the white marble mausoleum she built near
Agra for her father, Itimad-ud-daula. It is a magnificently carved monument,
inlaid with semi-precious stones in marble, a technique known as pietra dura.
- The style of architecture used by both Jahangir and Shahjahan is known
as Indo Persian. Important features of this style are Curved lines, Bulbous
dome, foliated arches vigorous use of marble instead of red sand stone and
use of pietre dura for decorative purposes.
- He built Moti Masjid in Lahore and his own mausoleum at Shahdara
- Shah Jahan commissioned the Jami Mosque within the precincts of the
dargah of the Sufi saint. Muinuddin Chisthi, at Ajmer and paid regular
homage at the shrine till the end of his reign.
- Mosque building activity reached its climax in Taj Mahal. He also built
the Jama Masjid (sand stone). Some of the important building built by
Shahajahan at agra are Moti Masjid (pniy mosque of marble) in Agra, Khaas
Mahal, Musamman Bun (Jasmine Palace where he spent his last years in
captivity ) and Sheesh Mahal with mosaic glasses on walls and ceilings.
- Many stone buildings were destroyed by him and replaced by marble. He
laid the foundations of Shahjahanabad in 1637 where he built the Red Fort
and Taqt-i-taus (Peacock throne).