Naga Issue: Timeline and Analysis: Important Topics for UPSC Exams​



Naga Issue: Timeline and Analysis: Important Topics for UPSC Exams​


Origin:

  • 1826: Annexation of Assam by British
  • 1881: Further control over Assam and Naga Hills also became part of British India.
  • 1918: Formation of NAGA Club, 1st sign of resistance.
  • 1929: Naga Club had told Simon Commission that to leave them alone for their self-determination as in ancient times.
  • 1946: Naga National Council (NNC) was formed under the leadership of Angami Zapu Phizo.
  • 1947: Declared Nagaland an independent state on August 14. The NNC resolved to establish a “sovereign Naga state”
  • 1951: NNC conducted a “referendum” , in which “99 per cent” supported an “independent” Nagaland.

Beginning of Armed Movement:

  • 1952: Phizo formed the underground Naga Federal Government (NFG) and the Naga Federal Army (NFA) to its response Government of India sent in the Army to crush the insurgency.
  • 1958: Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act application in Nagaland (AFSPA)

Beginning of Peace Efforts:

  • 1947, Assam Governor signed a 9-point agreement with moderates which was almost immediately rejected by Phizo.
  • 1963: The Naga Hills, a district of Assam, was upgraded to a state , by also adding the Tuensang Tract that was then part of NEFA.
  • 1964: Assam Chief Minister formed a Peace Mission, and got the government and NNC to sign an agreement to suspend operations that September. But the NNC/NFG/NFA continued to indulge in violence, and after six rounds of talks, the Peace Mission was abandoned in 1967, and a massive counter-insurgency operation launched.

NSCN Formation

  • 1975: government got a section of NNC leaders to sign the Shillong Accord, a section of NNC and NFG agreed to give up arms.
  • 1980: A group of about 140 members, who were at that time in China, refused to accept the Shillong Accord, and formed the National Socialist Council of Nagaland.
  • 1988: NSCN split into NSCN (IM) and NSCN (K) after a violent clash.
  • 1991: NNC began to fade away; the NSCN (IM) came to be seen as the “mother of all insurgencies” in the region.

NSCN (IM) Demand:

  • Greater Nagalim- that will include “all contiguous Naga-inhabited areas”, along with Nagaland. That included several districts of Assam, Arunachal and Manipur, as also a large tract of Myanmar.
  • The claims have always kept Assam, Manipur and Arunachal Pradesh wary of a peace settlement that might affect their territories.
  • The Nagaland Assembly has endorsed the ‘Greater Nagalim’ demand — “Integration of all Naga-inhabited contiguous areas under one administrative umbrella” — as many as five times: (1964,1970,1994,2003, 2015

NSCN(K):

  • Demand for Greater Ngalism as defined above.
  • Area of Operation: India(Nagaland, Arunanchal Pradesh) & Myanmar(headquarter).
  • Runs a parallel government in exile called the “People’s Republic of Nagaland”.
  • Funding : from kidnapping, extortion and other terrorist activities.
  • Designated a terrorist organization in India under the Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act, 1967.
  • 2015: NSCN(K) chairman abrogated the ceasefire he had signed in 2001, and is sure to oppose the peace accord driven by the current prime minister, further details of 2015 naga peace accord is not yet in public domain due to strategic reasons.

(Attempted) PEACE Processes/Accords

June 1947: Naga-Akbar Hydari Agreement, Signed by The Naga National Convention(NNC) and the Governor of Assam.

Agreement:

  • That the right of the Nagas to develop themselves according to their freely expressed wishes is recognized.
  • The Governor of Assam as the Agent of the Government of the Indian Union will have a special responsibility for a period of 10 years to ensure the observance of the agreement, at the end of this period the Naga Council will be asked whether they require the above agreement to be extended for a further period or a new agreement regarding the future of Naga people arrived at.
  • July 1960: Sixteen-point Agreement with the Naga People’s Convention. Nagaland formed as a state, under the charge of the Ministry of External Affairs.

Agreement:

No Act or law passed by the Union Parliament affecting the following provisions shall have legal force in the Nagaland unless specially applied to it by a majority vote of the Nagaland Legislative Assembly:

(a) The Religious or Social Practices of the Nagas,
(b) The Customary Laws and Procedure,
(c) Civil and Criminal Justice so far as these concern decision according to the Naga Customary Law.”

The Naga leaders expressed the view that other Nagas inhabiting contiguous areas should be enabled to join the new state. It was pointed out to them on behalf of the Government of India that Article 3 and 4 of the Constitution provided for increasing the area of any state, but it was not possible for the Government of India to make any commitment in this regard at this stage.

1964: Ceasefire Agreement

Agreement: With effect from September 6, 1964, and for a period thereafter of one month at present, the security forces will not undertake:

  • jungle operations;
  • raiding of camps of the underground;
  • patrolling beyond one thousand yards of Security posts;
  • searching of villages;
  • aerial action;
  • arrests; and
  • imposition of labour by way of punishment.

Provided underground restrict itself from (i) sniping and ambushing; (ii) imposition of fines; (iii) kidnapping and recruiting; (iv) sabotage activities; (v) raiding and firing on Security posts, towns and administrative centres; and (vi) moving with arms or in uniform in towns, villages and administrative centres, wherever there are Security posts and approaching within one thousand yards of Security posts.”

1975: Shillong Agreement, between Nagaland Governor and underground leaders

Agreement : The representatives of the underground organizations conveyed their decision, of their own volition, to accept, without condition, the Constitution of India. It was agreed that the arms, now underground, would be brought out and deposited at appointed places.

NSCN(R)

When?

6th April 2015: a new naga political group was formed officially- NSCN (Reformation) or NSCN(R). The decision came after misunderstanding in NSCN(K) arose over the recent abrogation of ceasefire with the Government of India.

Why?

People who formed reformation faction wanted to continue with the ceasefire maintaining that "violence has never served a good purpose and the Naga political problem can only be resolved through peace and negotiation"
While Khaplang had it abrogated because the "14 years of ceasefire between NSCN (K) and India has become a mockery and futile exercise."

Primary agenda:

to develop a sense of brotherhood among the Naga family and to rebuild the trust and faith among the Naga society.

Historic Peace Agreement: 3rd Aug. 2015

Between Government of India and NSCN(IM).

Agreement in brief: The government recognized the unique history, culture and position of the Nagas and their sentiments and aspirations. The NSCN understood and appreciated the Indian political system and governance

*Finer details not yey in public domain.

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