(Content) Indian Polity by M. Laxmikanth (TMH)


Indian Polity by M. Laxmikanth (TMH)

Table of Contents

Part I

Constitutional Framework

1. Historical Background

  • The Company Rule (1773–1858)
  • The Crown Rule (1858–1947)
  • Notes and References

2. Making of the Constitution

  • Composition of the Constituent Assembly
  • Working of the Constituent Assembly
  • Committees of the Constituent Assembly
  • Enactment of the Constitution
  • Enforcement of the Constitution
  • Criticism of the Constituent Assembly
  • Notes and References

3. Salient Features of the Constitution

Introduction

  • Salient Features of the Constitution
  • Notes and References

4. Preamble of the Constitution

  • Text of the Preamble
  • Ingredients of the Preamble
  • Key Words in the Preamble
  • Significance of the Preamble
  • Preamble as Part of the Constitution
  • Amendability of the Preamble
  • Notes and References

5. Union and its Territory

  • Union of States
  • Parliament’s Power to Reorganise the States
  • Evolution of States and Union Territories
  • Notes and References

6. Citizenship

  • Meaning and Significance
  • Constitutional Provisions
  • Citizenship Act, 1955
  • Single Citizenship
  • Notes and References

7. Fundamental Rights

  • Features of Fundamental Rights
  • Definition of State
  • Laws Inconsistent with Fundamental Rights
  • Right to Equality
  • Right to Freedom
  • Right Against Exploitation
  • Right to Freedom of Religion
  • Cultural and Educational Rights
  • Right to Constitutional Remedies
  • Writs—Types and Scope
  • Armed Forces and Fundamental Rights
  • Martial Law and Fundamental Rights
  • Effecting Certain Fundamental Rights
  • Present Position of Right to Property
  • Exceptions to Fundamental Right
  • Criticism of Fundamental Rights
  • Significance of Fundamental Rights
  • Rights Outside Part III
  • Notes and References

8. Directive Principles of State Policy

  • Features of the Directive Principles
  • Classification of the Directive Principles
  • New Directive Principles
  • Sanction Behind Directive Principles
  • Criticism of the Directive Principles
  • Utility of Directive Principles
  • Conflict Between Fundamental Rights and Directive Principles
  • Implementation of Directive Principles
  • Directives Outside Part IV
  • Notes and References

9. Fundamental Duties

  • Swaran Singh Committee Recommendations
  • List of Fundamental Duties
  • Features of the Fundamental Duties
  • Criticism of Fundamental Duties
  • Significance of Fundamental Duties
  • Verma Committee Observations
  • Notes and References

10. Amendment of the Constitution

  • Procedure for Amendment
  • Types of Amendments
  • Criticism of the Amendment Procedure
  • Notes and References

11. Basic Structure of the Constitution

  • Emergence of the Basic Structure
  • Elements of the Basic Structure
  • Notes and References
  • Part II
  • System of Government

12. Parliamentary System

  • Features of Parliamentary Government
  • Features of Presidential Government
  • Merits of the Parliamentary System
  • Demerits of the Parliamentary System
  • Reasons for Adopting Parliamentary System
  • Distinction between Indian and British Models
  • Notes and References

13. Federal System

  • Federal Features of the Constitution
  • Unitary Features of the Constitution
  • Critical Evaluation of the Federal System
  • Notes and References

14. Centre–State Relations

  • Legislative Relations
  • Administrative Relations
  • Financial Relations
  • Trends in Centre–State Relations
  • Notes and References

15. Inter-State Relations

  • Inter-state Water Disputes
  • Inter-State Councils
  • Public Acts, Records and Judicial Proceedings
  • Inter-State Trade and Commerce
  • Zonal Councils
  • Notes and References

16. Emergency Provisions

  • National Emergency
  • President’s Rule
  • Financial Emergency
  • Criticism of the Emergency Provisions
  • Notes and References
  • Part III
  • Central Government

17. President

  • Election of the President
  • Qualifications, Oath and Conditions
  • Term, Impeachment and Vacancy
  • Powers and Functions of the President
  • Veto Power of the President
  • Ordinance-making Power of the President
  • Pardoning Power of the President
  • Constitutional Position of the President
  • Notes and References

18. Vice-President

  • Election
  • Qualifications
  • Oath or Affirmation
  • Conditions of Office
  • Term of Office
  • Vacancy in Office
  • Election Disputes
  • Powers and Functions
  • Indian and American Vice-Presidents Compared
  • Emoluments
  • Notes and References

19. Prime Minister

  • Appointment of the Prime Minister
  • Oath, Term and Salary
  • Powers and Functions of the Prime Minister 1
  • Role Descriptions
  • Relationship with the President
  • Chief Ministers who became Prime Ministers
  • Notes and References

20. Central Council of Ministers

  • Constitutional Provisions
  • Nature of Advice by Ministers
  • Appointment of Ministers
  • Responsibility of Ministers
  • Composition of the Council of Ministers
  • Council of Ministers Vs Cabinet
  • Role of Cabinet
  • Role Descriptions
  • Kitchen Cabinet
  • Notes and References

21. Cabinet Committees

  • Features of Cabinet Committees
  • List of Cabinet Committees
  • Functions of Cabinet Committees
  • Groups of Ministers
  • Notes and References

22. Parliament

  • Organisation of Parliament
  • Composition of the Two Houses
  • System of Elections to Lok Sabha
  • Duration of Two Houses
  • Membership of Parliament
  • Presiding Officers of Parliament
  • Leaders in Parliament
  • Sessions of Parliament
  • Devices of Parliamentary Proceedings
  • Legislative Procedure in Parliament
  • Joint Sitting of Two Houses
  • Budget in Parliament
  • Multifunctional Role of Parliament
  • Ineffectiveness of Parliamentary Control
  • Position of Rajya Sabha
  • Parliamentary Privileges
  • Sovereignty of Parliament
  • Notes and References

23. Parliamentary Committees

  • Meaning and Classification
  • Notes and References

24. Parliamentary Forums

  • Establishment of Forums
  • Objectives of the Forums
  • Composition of the Forums
  • Functions of the Forums
  • Notes and References

25. Supreme Court

  • Organisation of Supreme Court
  • Seat of Supreme Court
  • Procedure of the Court
  • Independence of Supreme Court
  • Jurisdiction and Powers of Supreme Court
  • Supreme Court Advocates
  • Notes and References"
  • Part IV
  • State Government

26. Governor

  • Appointment of Governor
  • Conditions of Governor’s Office
  • Term of Governor’s Office
  • Powers and Functions of Governor
  • Constitutional Position of Governor
  • Notes and References

27. Chief Minister

  • Appointment of Chief Minister
  • Oath, Term and Salary
  • Powers and Functions of Chief Minister
  • Relationship with the Governor
  • Notes and References

28. State Council of Ministers

  • Constitutional Provisions
  • Nature of Advice by Ministers
  • Appointment of Ministers
  • Oath and Salary of Ministers
  • Responsibility of Ministers
  • Composition of the Council of Ministers
  • Cabinet
  • Notes and References

29. State Legislature

  • Organisation of State Legislature
  • Composition of Two Houses
  • Duration of Two Houses
  • Membership of State Legislature
  • Presiding Officers of State Legislature
  • Sessions of State Legislature
  • Legislative Procedure in State Legislature
  • Position of Legislative Council
  • Privileges of State Legislature
  • Notes and References

30. High Court

  • Organisation of High Court
  • Independence of High Court
  • Jurisdiction and Powers of High Court
  • Notes and References

31. Subordinate Courts

  • Constitutional Provisions
  • Structure and Jurisdiction
  • Notes and Reference

32. Special Status of Jammu & K ashmir

  • Accession of J&K to India
  • Present Relationship Between J&K and India
  • Features of J&K Constitution
  • J&K Autonomy Resolution Rejected
  • Group of Interlocutors for J&K
  • Notes and References

33. Special Provisions for Some States

  • Provisions for Maharashtra and Gujarat
  • Provisions for Nagaland
  • Provisions for Assam and Manipur
  • Provisions for Andhra Pradesh
  • Provisions for Sikkim
  • Provisions for Mizoram
  • Provisions for Arunachal Pradesh and Goa
  • Provisions for Karnataka
  • Notes and References
  • Part V
  • Local Government

34. Panchayati Raj

  • Evolution of Panchayati Raj
  • 73rd Amendment Act of 1992
  • Compulsory and Voluntary Provisions
  • Pesa Act of 1996 (Extension Act)
  • Notes and References

35. Municipalities

  • Evolution of Urban Bodies
  • 74th Amendment Act of 1992
  • Types of Urban Governments
  • Municipal Personnel
  • Central Council of Local Government
  • Notes and References
  • Part VI
  • Union Territories and Special Areas

36. Union Territories

  • Creation of Union Territories
  • Administration of Union Territories
  • Special Provisions for Delhi
  • Advisory Committees of Union Territories
  • Notes and References

37. Scheduled and Tribal A reas

  • Administration of Scheduled Areas
  • Administration of Tribal Areas
  • Notes and References
  • Part VII
  • Constitutional Bodies

38. Eection Commission

  • Composition
  • Independence
  • Powers and Functions
  • Notes and References

39. Union Public Service Commission

  • Composition
  • Removal
  • Independence
  • Functions
  • Limitations
  • Role
  • Notes and References

40. State Public Service Commission

  • Composition
  • Removal
  • Independence
  • Functions
  • Limitations
  • Role
  • Joint State Public Service Commission
  • Notes and References

41. Finance Commission

  • Composition
  • Functions
  • Advisory Role
  • Impact of Planning Commission
  • Commissions Appointed
  • Notes and References

42. National Commission for SC s

  • Evolution of the Commission
  • Functions of the Commission
  • Report of the Commission
  • Powers of the Commission
  • Notes and References

43. National Commission for ST s

  • Separate Commission for STs
  • Functions of the Commission
  • Other Functions of the Commission
  • Report of the Commission
  • Powers of the Commission
  • Notes and References

44. Special Officer for Linguistic Minorities

  • Constitutional Provisions
  • Commissioner for Linguistic Minorities
  • Role
  • Vision and Mission
  • Functions and Objectives
  • Notes and References

45. Comptroller and Auditor General of India

  • Appointment and Term
  • Independence
  • Duties and Powers
  • Role
  • Cag and Corporations
  • Appleby’s Criticism
  • Notes and References

46. Attorney General of India

  • Appointment and Term
  • Duties and Functions
  • Rights and Limitations
  • Solicitor General of India
  • Notes and References

47. Advocate General of the State

  • Appointment and Term
  • Duties and Functions
  • Notes and References
  • Part VIII
  • Non-Constitutional Bodies

48. Planning Commission

  • Functions
  • Composition
  • Internal Organisation
  • Personnel
  • Programme Evaluation Organisation
  • Critical Evaluation
  • Notes and References

49. National Development Council

  • Composition
  • Objectives
  • Functions
  • Critical Evaluation
  • Notes and References

50. National Human Rights Commission

  • Establishment of the Human Rights Commission
  • Composition of the Commission
  • Functions of the Commission
  • Working of the Commission
  • Role of the Commission
  • Performance of the Commission
  • Human Rights (Amendment) Act,
  • Notes and References

51. State Human Rights Commission

  • Composition of the Commission
  • Functions of the Commission
  • Working of the Commission
  • Human Rights Courts
  • Notes and References

52. Central Information Commission

  • Composition
  • Tenure and Service Conditions
  • Powers and Functions
  • Notes and References

53. State Information Commission

  • Composition
  • Tenure and Service Conditions
  • Powers and Functions
  • Notes and References

54. Central Vigilance Commission

  • Composition
  • Organisation
  • Functions
  • Jurisdiction
  • Working
  • Notes and References

55. Central Bureau of Investigation

  • Establishment of CBI
  • Motto, Mission and Vision of CBI
  • Organisation of CBI
  • Composition of CBI
  • Functions of CBI
  • CBI vs. State Police
  • CBI Academy
  • Notes and References

56. Lokpal and Lokayuktas

  • Global ScenarioLokpal
  • Lokayuktas
  • Notes and References
  • Part IX
  • Other Constitutional Dimensions

57. Co-operative Societies

  • Constitutional Provisions
  • Reasons for the 97th Amendment
  • Notes and References

58. Official Language

  • Language of the Union
  • Regional Languages
  • Language of the Judiciary and Texts of Laws
  • Special Directives
  • Notes and References

59. Public Services

  • Classification of Services
  • Constitutional Provisions
  • Notes and References

60. Tribunals

  • Administrative Tribunals
  • Tribunals for Other Matters
  • Notes and References

61. Rights and Liabilities of the Government

  • Property of the Union and the States
  • Suits by or Against the Government
  • Suits Against Public Officials
  • Notes and References

62. Authoritative Text of the Constitution in Hindi L anguage

  • Constitutional Provisions
  • Reasons for the 58th Amendment
  • Notes and References

63. Special Provisions Relating to Certain Classes

  • Rationale of Special Provisions
  • Specification of Classes
  • Components of Special Provisions
  • Notes and References
  • Part X
  • Political Dynamics

64. Political Parties

  • Meaning and Types
  • Party System in India
  • Recognition of National and State Parties
  • Notes and References

65. Elections

  • Electoral System
  • Election Machinery
  • Election Process
  • Notes and References

66. Electoral Reforms

  • Committees Related to Electoral Reforms
  • Electoral Reforms Before 1996
  • Electoral Reforms of 1996
  • Electoral Reforms After 1996
  • Electoral Reforms Since 2010
  • Notes and References

67. Anti-Defection Law

  • Provisions of the Act
  • Evaluation of the Act
  • 91st Amendment Act (2003)
  • Notes and References

68. Pressure Groups

  • Meaning and Techniques
  • Pressure Groups in India
  • Notes and References

69. National Integration

  • Meaning of National Integration
  • Obstacles to National Integration
  • National Integration Council
  • National Foundation for Communal Harmony
  • Notes and References

70. Foreign Policy

  • Principles of Indian Foreign Policy
  • Objectives of Indian Foreign Policy
  • Look East Policy of India
  • Gujral Doctrine of India
  • Nuclear Doctrine of India
  • Notes and References
  • Part XI
  • Working of the Constitution

71. National Commission to Review the Working of the Constitution

  • Terms of Reference of the Commission
  • Fifty Years of Working of the Constitution
  • Areas of Concern: Commission’s Perception
  • Recommendations of the Commission
  • Notes and References

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