Geologist Exam Syllabus
The standard of the paper in General English will be such as may be
expected of a science graduate. The papers on geological subjects will be
approximately of the M.Sc. degree standard of an Indian University and questions
will generally be set to test the candidate's grasp of the fundamentals in each
There will be no practical examination in any of the subjects.
(1) General English
Candidate will be required to write a short Essay in English.
Other questions will be designed to test their under-standing of English and
workmanlike use of words.
(2) Geology - Paper I
Section A : Geomorphology and Remote Sensing.
Basic principles. Weathering and soils, Mass wasting. Influence of climate on
processes. Concept of erosion cycles. Geomorphology of fluvial tracts, arid
zones, coastal regions, 'Karst' landscapes and glaciated ranges. Geomorphic
mapping, slope analysis and drainage basin analysis. Applications of
geomorphology in mineral prospecting, civil engineering, hydrology and
environmental studies. Topographical maps. Geomorphology of India.
Concepts and principles of aerial photography and photogrammetry, satellite
remote sensing - data products and their interpretation. Digital image
processing. Remote sensing in landform and land use mapping, structural mapping,
hydrogeological studies and mineral exploration. Global and Indian Space
Missions. Geographic Information System (GIS) - principles and applications.
Section B : Structural Geology
Principles of geological mapping and map reading, projection diagrams.
Stress-strain relationships of elastic, plastic and viscous materials.
Measurement of strain in deformed rocks. Behaviour of minerals and rocks under
deformation conditions. Structural analysis of folds, cleavages, lineations,
joints and faults.
Superposed deformation. Mechanism of folding and faulting. Time-relationship
between crystallization and deformation. Unconformities and basement-cover
relations. Structural behaviour of igneous rocks, diapirs and salt domes.
Introduction to petrofabrics.
Section C : Geotectonics
Earth and the solar system, Meteorites and other extra-terrestrial materials,
Planetary evolution of the earth and its internal structure. Heterogeneity of
the earth's crust. Major tectonic features of the Oceanic and Continental crust.
Continental drift - geological and geophysical evidence, mechanics, objections,
Gravity and magnetic anomalies at Mid-ocean ridges, deep sea trenches,
continental shield areas and mountain chains. Palaeomagnetism. Seafloor
spreading and Plate Tectonics. Island arcs, Oceanic islands and volcanic arcs.
Isostasy, orogeny and epeirogeny. Seismic belts of the earth. Seismicity and
plate movements. Geodynamics of the Indian plate.
Section D: Stratigraphy
Nomenclature and the modern stratigraphic code. Radioisotopes and measuring
geological time. Geological time-scale. Stratigraphic procedures of correlation
of unfossiliferous rocks. Precambrian stratigraphy of India. Stratigraphy of the
Palaeozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic formations of India. Gondwana system and
Gondwanaland. Rise of the Himalaya and evolution of Siwalik basin. Deccan
Volcanics. Quaternary Stratigraphy. Rock record, palaeoclimates and
Section E : Palaeontology
Fossil record and geological time-scale. Morphology and time-ranges of fossil
groups. Evolutionary changes in molluscs and mammals in geological time.
Principles of evolution. Use of species and genera of foraminifera and
echinodermata in biostratigraphic correlation. Siwalik vertebrate fauna and
Gondwana flora, evidence of life in Precambrian times, different microfossil
groups and their distribution in India.
(3) Geology - Paper II
Section A : Mineralogy
Physical, chemical and crystallographic characteristics of common rock forming
silicate mineral groups. Structural classification of silicates. Common minerals
of igneous and metamorphic rocks. Minerals of the carbonate, phosphate, sulphide
and halide groups.
Optical properties of common rock forming silicate minerals, uniaxial and
biaxial minerals. Extinction angles, pleochroism, birefringenece of minerals and
their relation with mineral composition. Twinned crystals. Dispersion. The
Section B : Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology
Forms, textures and structures of igneous rocks. Silicate melt equilibria,
binary and pernery phase diagrams. Petrology and geotectonic evolution of
granites, basalts, andesites and alkaline rocks. Petrology of gabbros,
kimberlites, anorthosites and carbonatites. Origin of primary basic magmas.
Textures and structures of metamorphic rocks. Regional and contact metamorphism
of pelitic and impure calcareous rocks. Mineral assemblages and P/T conditions.
Experimental and thermodynamic appraisal of metamorphic reactions.
Characteristics of different grades and facies of metamorphism. Metasomatism and
granitization, migmatites. Plate tectonics and metamorphic zones. Paired
Section C : Sedimentology
Provenance and diagenesis of sediments. Sedimentary textures. Framework
matrix and cement of terrigenous sediments. Definition, measurement and
interpretation of grain size. Elements of hydraulics. Primary structures,
palaeocurrent analysis. Biogenic and chemical sedimentary structures.
Sedimentary environment and facies.
Facies modelling for marine, non-marine and mixed sediments. Tectonics and
sedimentation. Classification and definition of sedimentary basins, Sedimentary
basins of India. Cyclic sediments. Seismic and sequence stratigraphy. Purpose
and scope of basin analysis. Structure contours and isopach maps.
Section D : Geochemistry
Earth in relation to the solar system and universe, cosmic abundance of
elements. Composition of the planets and meteorites. Structure and composition
of earth and distribution of elements. Trace elements. Elementary crystal
chemistry and thermodynamics. Introduction to isotope geochemistry. Geochemistry
of hydrosphere, biosphere and atmosphere. Geochemical cycle and principles of
Section E : Environmental Geology
Concepts and principles. Natural hazards - preventive/precautionary measures
- floods, landslides, earthquakes, river and coastal erosion. Impact assessment
of anthropogenic activities such as urbanization, open cast mining and
quarrying, river-valley projects, disposal of industrial and radio-active waste,
excess withdrawal of ground water, use of fertilizers, dumping of ores, mine
waste and fly-ash.
Organic and inorganic contamination of ground water and their remedial measures.
Soil degradation and remedial measures. Environment protection - legislative
measures in India.
(4) Geology - Paper III
Section A : Indian mineral deposits and mineral economics
Occurrence and distribution in India of metalliferous deposits - base metals,
iron, manganese, aluminium, chromium, nickel, gold, silver, molybdenum. Indian
deposits of non-metals - mica, asbestos, barytes, gypsum, graphite, apatite and
beryl. Gemstones, refractory minerals, abrasives and minerals used in glass,
fertilizer, paint, ceramic and cement industries. Building stones. Phosphorite
deposits. Placer deposits, rare earth minerals.
Strategic, critical and essential minerals. India's status in mineral
production. Changing patterns of mineral consumption. National Mineral Policy.
Mineral Concession Rules. Marine mineral resources and Law of Sea.
Section B : Ore genesis
Ore deposits and ore minerals. Magmatic processes of mineralisation.
Porphyry, skarn and hydrothermal mineralisation. Fluid inclusion studies.
Mineralisation associated with - (i) ultramafic, mafic and acidic rocks, (ii)
greenstone belts, (iii) komatiites, anorthosites and kimberlites and (iv)
submarine volcanism. Magma-related mineralisation through geological time.
Stratiform and stratabound ores. Ores and metamorphism - cause and effect
Section C : Mineral exploration
Methods of surface and subsurface exploration, prospecting for economic
minerals - drilling, sampling and assaying. Geophysical techniques - gravity,
electrical, magnetic, airborne and seismic. Geomorphological and remote sensing
techniques. Geobotanical and geochemical methods. Borehole logging and surveys
Section D : Geology of fuels
Definition, origin of coal. Stratigraphy of coal measures. Fundamentals of
coal petrology, peat, lignite, bituminous and anthracite coal. Microscopic
constituents of coal. Industrial application of coal petrology. Indian coal
deposits. Diagenesis of organic materials.
Origin, migration and entrapment of natural hydorcarbons. Characters of source
and reservoir rocks. Structural, stratigraphic and mixed traps. Techniques of
exploration. Geographical and geological distributions of onshore and offshore
petroliferous basins of India.
Mineralogy and geochemistry of radioactive minerals. Instrumental techniques of
detection and measurement of radioactivity. Radioactive methods for prospecting
and assaying of mineral deposits. Distribution of radioactive minerals in India.
Radioactive methods in petroleum exploration - well logging techniques. Nuclear
waste disposal - geological constraints.
Section E : Engineering geology
Mechanical properties of rocks and soils. Geological investigations for river
valley projects - Dams and reservoirs; tunnels - types, methods and problems.
Bridges - types and foundation problems. Shoreline engineering. Landslides -
classification, causes, prevention and rehabilitation. Concrete aggregates -
sources, alkali-aggregate reaction. Aseismic designing - seismicity in India and
earthquake-resistant structures. Problems of groundwater in engineering
projects. Geotechnical case studies of major projects in India.
Section A: Origin, occurrence and distribution of water.
Origin of water : meteroic, juvenile, magmatic and sea waters, Hydrologic cycle:
precipitation, runoff, infiltration and evapotranspiration, Hydrographs.
Subsurface movement and vertical distribution of groundwater, Springs,
Classification of aquifers, Concepts of drainage basin and groundwater basin.
hydrological properties of rocks - specific yield, specific retention, porosity,
hydraulic conductivity, transmissivity, storage coefficient, water table
fluctuations - causative factors, concept of barometric and tidal efficiencies,
water table contour maps, Classification of rocks with respect to their water
bearing characteristics, Hydro-stratigraphic units, Groundwater provinces of
India, Hydrogeology of and Zones of India, wet lands.
Section B : Well hydraulies and well design
Theory of groundwater flow, Darey's Law and its applications, determination
of permeability in laboratory and in field, Types of wells, drilling methods,
construction, design, development and maintenance of wells, specific capacity
and its determination. Unconfined, confined, steady, unsteady and radial flow
conditions, Pumps tests - methods, data analysis and interpretation for
hydrogeologic boundaries, Evaluation of aquifer parameters using Thiem, Theis,
Jacob and Walton methods, Groundwater modeling - numerical and electrical
Section C : Groundwater chemistry
Groundwater quality - physical and chemical properties of water, quality
criteria for different uses, graphical presentation of water quality data,
groundwater quality in different provinces of India - problems of arsenic and
fluoride, Saline water intrusion in coastal and other aquifers and its
prevention, Radioisotopes in hydrogeological studies, Groundwater contamination.
Section D : Groundwater exploration
Geological - lithological and structural mapping, fracture trace analysis,
Hydrogeological - lithological classification with respect of hydrologic
properties, Hydraulic continuity in relation to geologic structures, Location of
springs Remote sensing - hydrogeomorphic mapping of the terrain using different
images of different satellite missions, lineament mapping, shallow groundwater
potential zone mapping using satellite images, Surface geophysical methods -
seismic, gravity, geo-electrical and magnetic, Subsurface geophysical methods -
well logging for delineation of aquifers and estimation of water quality.
Section E : Groundwater problems and management.
Groundwater problems related to foundation work, mining, canals and tunnels,
Problems of over exploitation and groundwater mining. Groundwater development in
urban areas and rain water harvesting, Artificial recharge methods, Groundwater
problems in arid regions and remediation. Groundwater balance and methods of
estimation. Groundwater legislation. Sustainability criteria and managing
renewable and nonrenewable groundwater resources.