(Download) UPSC Mains 2014 Optional Exam Paper (Public Administration Paper -1)


(Download) UPSC Mains 2014 Optional Exam Papers (Public Administration Paper -1)

Subject: Public Administration Paper -1

Exam Date: 19th December 2014

File Size: 1.34 MB

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(Download) UPSC Mains 2014 Optional Exam Paper (Public Administration Paper -2)


(Download) UPSC Mains 2014 Optional Exam Papers (Public Administration Paper -2)

Subject: Public Administration Paper -2

Exam Date: 19th December 2014

File Size: 1.93 MB

File Type: PDF

(Download) UPSC Mains 2014 Optional Exam Papers (History Paper -1)


(Download) UPSC Mains 2014 Optional Exam Papers (History Paper -1)

Subject: History Paper -1

Exam Date: 19th December 2014

File Size: 1.65 MB

File Type: PDF

(Download) UPSC Mains 2014 Optional Exam Papers (History Paper -2)


(Download) UPSC Mains 2014 Optional Exam Papers (History Paper -2)

Subject: History Paper -2

Exam Date: 19th December 2014

File Size: 1.86 MB

File Type: PDF

(Download) UPSC Mains 2014 Optional Exam Papers (Sociology Paper - 1)


(Download) UPSC Mains 2014 Optional Exam Papers (Sociology Paper - 1)

Subject: Sociology Paper - 1

Exam Date: 19th December 2014

File Size: 1.35 MB

File Type: PDF

(Download) UPSC Mains 2014 Optional Exam Papers (Sociology Paper - 2)


(Download) UPSC Mains 2014 Optional Exam Papers (Sociology Paper - 2)

Subject: Sociology Paper - 2

Exam Date: 19th December 2014

File Size: 1.42 MB

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The Gist of Yojana: December 2014

The Gist of Yojana: December 2014

Urban Policies and Programmes in India: Retrospect and Prospect

The Importance of cities and urban centres has been growing in India’s economic development during the post liberalization phase. For example, the contribution of urban areas to India’s GDP has increased from 29 per cent in 1950-51 to 47 per cent in 1980-81, to 62 to 63 per cent by 2007, and is expected to increase to 75 per cent by 2021 (Planning Commission 2008: 394). It is also being emphasized that 9 to 10 per cent of growth in GDP depends fundamentally on making Indian cities more livable and inclusive (Planning Commission, Govt. of India 2008: 394).

One of the important features of urbanization influencing politics and policies is that it undermines old forms of political mobilization based on caste and religious identities and favors local issues to be resolved through right based approach to development.

One of the startling facts of India’s urban history is that most of the cities and towns have grown on their own. Policy and programmes to some extent affected the big urban centres, but the small cities and towns and non-metropolitan areas have largely been remained unaffected by urban policy and programmes.

Urban Programmes and Planning in Five Year Plans

During the first two Five Year Plan periods, various institutions and organizations were created and set up. For example, the Government set up the Town and Country Planning Organization, the National Building Organisation and Delhi Development Authority during this period.

The Third Five Year Plan (1961-66) was a turning point in India’s history of urban development and planning. It recognized the importance of cities and towns in balanced regional development and advised that urban planning adopt a regional approach. It emphasized the need for urban land regulation, checking of urban land prices and also preparation of master plan for the big cities.

The Fourth Five Year Plan (1969-74) continued to emphasize the regional and urban development initiatives in the Third Plan, and development plans for 72 urban centres were undertaken.

The Urban Land (Ceiling and Regulation) Act 1976 was passed during Fifth Five Year Plan period. It also advised the state governments to create metropolitan planning regions to take care of the growing areas outside administrative city limits. In a very significant development during this plan period, the Government of Maharashtra passed the Mumbai Metropolitan Development Act in 1974 and the Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority (MMRDA) was established in accordance on 26th January, 1975.

The Sixth Five Year Plan (1978-83) stressed the need to develop small and medium size towns (less than 1 lakh). A scheme of Integrated Development of Small and Medium Towns (IDSMT) was launched in 1979 by the Central Government.

There were some important institutional developments during Seventh Plan period which shaped the urban development policy and planning in India. The National Commission on Urbanisation submitted its report in August 1988 and a bill known as 65th Constitution Amendment was introduced in Lok Sabha in 1989 incorporating the suggestions of the Commission. The bill was the first attempt to grant constitutional status to urban local bodies with an aim to create a- three tier federal structure.

During Eighth Plan, the Mega City Scheme was introduced in 1993-94 covering five megacities of Mumbai, Calcutta, Chennai, Bangalore and Hyderabad. Also, the IDSMT scheme was revamped to dovetail its activities of infrastructure development programmes for boosting employment generation for diverting migration from the big cities to the small and medium towns.

The Ninth Plan (1997-2002) sought that state urbanisation strategy should be prepared for establishing synergy among various urban development programmes. Although, most of the programmes undertaken in the Eighth Plan continued in Ninth Plan, the emphasis was placed more on decentralization and financial autonomy of the urban local bodies with an aim to promote competitiveness and efficiency’ through market based interventions.
The Tenth Five Year Plan (2002-2007) recognized the fact that urbanization played a key role in accelerating economic growth in the 1980s and 1990s as a result of economic liberalisation. It also noted that programmes such as the Mega City project for five selected cities, the Integrated Development of Small and Medium Towns (IDSMT), and the Accelerated Urban Water Supply Programme (AUWSP) have shown limited success. It also noted that the coverage and the amount of central assistance in the past have been uneven and inadequate, both because of procedural issues as well as limited budgetary allocations. The existing schemes for assistance for infrastructure such as the IDSMT and the Mega City Project leave a significant number of cities between them without any central support.

A programme called Valmiki-Ambedkar Awas Yojana (VAMBAY) was also initiated in 2001-2002 for provision of shelter and upgrading the existing shelter of the people below poverty line. A subsidy in the range of Rs. 20 to 30 thousand was provided per unit depending upon the size of the city.

The Eleventh Five Year Plan (2007-12) introduced some innovative changes in the urban policy and programmes. The key urban development strategies were as follows:

i. Strengthening urban local bodies through capacity building and better financial management.
ii. Increasing the efficiency and productivity of cities by deregulation and development of land.
iii. Dismantling public sector monopoly over urban infrastructure and creating conducive atmosphere for the private sector to invest.
iv. Establishing aut0nom0us regulatory framework to oversee the functioning of the public and private sector.
v. Reducing incidence of poverty.
vi. Using technology and innovation in a big way.

In order to revitalize the urban development strategies, the Central Government launched a major initiative named as Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (JNNURM), in December 2005, to give a focused attention to integrated development of urban infrastructure and services initially in select 63 mission cities.

e-Governance: Civil Services Mentor Magazine - December - 2014


Government in present era has to be SMART, citizens want a government which is simple, moral, accountable, responsive and transparent. Citizens want simple processes which take less time and energy. Citizens also want that interactions between the government and them should be smooth and being the primary owner of the information citizen should be provided with all the information. In order to achieve all above use of Information technology is a necessity. Processes in India generally contain lot of paper work, less flexibility and it less takes lot of time to get response from the government officials. Citizens also need to visit lot of places in order to complete a single work.

In order to achieve all the above objectives government approved the Digital India programme. This is an ambitious programme to “transform India into digital empowered society and knowledge economy”. Department of Electronics and Information Technology (Deity) will look into its execution. Digital India is phased programme with the year of completion as 2018. But the expense to provide traditional services and to extend around-the-clock availability to those services can be astronomical. Multi-channel access through web, phone or text message can offer constituents access through those channels that suit their needs and preferences.

Juvenile Justice System: Civil Services Mentor Magazine - December - 2014


The word ‘juvenile’ originatesfrom Latin word ‘juvenis’, which means young. In justice system it is believed that Juvenile needs special care because of their tender age and underdeveloped mind. Juvenile justice system is to protect all the children, while looking into the difference of thinking and maturity they have. Juvenile justice system is an offshoot of criminal justice system. The Criminal Justice System (CJS) is a system which decide the rules for society and also provide the sanctions when behavior is deterrent towards the social fabric. Juvenile justice system look into the special circumstances which juvenile faces and decide the deterrent towards wrong doing accordingly.

Juvenile justice act(JJA) which came into force in 2000 is applicable to whole of India.Child under JJA is defined as anyone below the age of 18 years. This legislation came in order to make India coherent with the legislation passed in UN Convention on the Rights of the Child. Indian penal code says that any child below the age of 7 cannot be charged under any crime because they cannot form their own opinion. And in between 7 to 12 years of age it is to be tested that have they developed the mental capacity to form their own opinion. But after Juvenile justice act all children below the age of 18 cannot be punished but only measures to improve their behavior can be taken.

(Download) UPSC IAS Mains 2014: General Studies Paper-4 (Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude)


(Download) UPSC Mains 2014: General Studies (Paper -4)

Subject: General Studies (Paper -4)

Exam Date: 17th December 2014

File Size: 2.25 MB

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Gist of The Hindu: December 2014

Gist of The Hindu: December 2014

For a new Paradigm of Social Justice

The central policy challenge for the new government is how to sustain social gains while ensuring that Dalits can participate more meaningfully in the economy, by sharing in the fruits of economic growth while contributing as well. In his address to the nation on Independence Day, Prime Minister Narendra Modi expressed his intention to “take a solemn pledge of working for... the welfare of the poor, oppressed, Dalits, the exploited and the backward people of our country.” We don’t know just what precise shape his social justice vision will take in practice, but it is likely to be a mix of traditional approaches, when unavoidable, coupled with a new architecture, when feasible. When independent India’s founding fathers committed themselves to constitutionalism and democracy, they were well aware that democracy was a “top dressing on Indian soil, which is essentially undemocratic,” as B.R. Ambedkar cogently put it. The rigid and deeply maligned social hierarchies of Indian society meant that a commitment to equality and social justice was hardly a “natural” sentiment.

Survey on Dalit entrepreneurs

Since then, the Indian state has sought to put forth dozens of laws and programmes to attenuate these deep social inequalities and two-thirds of a century after independence, social inequalities in Indian society are a far cry from what they were when the country came into being. But there is a long, long way to go before social justice is a reality for the vast majority of Indians from socially marginalised communities. It is equally clear, however, that the country needs new thinking (nayi soch) on social justice, as the Prime Minister has argued.

In recent years, the country has been witnessing social change that is gradually weakening the iron grip of status hierarchies, and India’s Dalits are slowly seeing its benefits. But the gains are more social than economic. The central policy challenge for the new government is how to sustain the social gains, ensuring that Dalits can participate more meaningfully in the economy, by sharing in the fruits of economic growth while contributing as well. Our initial findings indicate that almost all of the respondents are first generation entrepreneurs. Most are not well-educated (in terms of fancy degrees); indeed, many have even limited schooling. The collective turnover of these 1,000 Dalit entrepreneurs is nearly Rs.10,000 crore. Almost none of them has received support or preferential treatment from the government. They did not even consider approaching institutions like the National Scheduled Castes Finance and Development Corporation (NSFDC) which is mandated to promote entrepreneurship among Dalits. The transaction costs are simply too high when compared to the very modest amounts of funds handed out by people who have little knowledge of the issues.

What’s more, the government was unaware of the fact that some Dalits have achieved noteworthy success as entrepreneurs until our survey received widespread media coverage. This is a severe indictment of what surveys like the Economic Census capture and the plethora of schemes and programmes that allegedly strive to promote Dalit welfare. It is a sobering thought, however, that for every successful Dalit who defied the odds to become a trailblazer, there are countless others who have failed and given up, beaten down by life’s impossible odds. It is also pertinent to remember that three-fourths of Dalits (about 150 million) still live in villages. What they don’t need are grandiose government schemes which people ignore with justifiable contempt. Instead three policy challenges raised by the Prime Minister in his Independence Day speech — skills, manufacturing and urbanisation — if addressed well, will do more for Dalit entrepreneurs, for the community and the country at large, than the dozens of stand-alone schemes that exist currently.

India & Japan: Civil Services Mentor Magazine - December - 2014

India & Japan

India and Japan have a long history of engagements, relations between the two countries are as old as 6th century B.C. It started with Buddhism being introduced to Japan. Japan’s relation with India has always been positive, in freedom struggle Japan supported netaji. However the modern relations are more based on technological advancement of Japan. But even in present era where relations are dominated by economic sphere both countries have maintained good cultural, educational and spiritual ties based upon the values of democracy and rule of law. Strong cultural values of Japan has attracted Indian leaders from time to time, Swami Vivekananda once said that every Indian must visit Japan once in his/her lifetime. The Japan-India Association was set up 110 years ago in 1903, and is today the oldest international friendship body in Japan. India and Japan has seen lot of adversaries in the past but they have always stood by each other. Post the Second World War, India did not attend the San Francisco Conference, but decided to conclude a separate peace treaty with Japan in 1952 after its sovereignty was fully restored, marking a defining moment in the bilateral relations and setting the tone for the future.

Financial Inclusion: Civil Services Mentor Magazine - December - 2014

Financial Inclusion

India has grown substantially since liberalization and GDP of India has seen a multifold increase over the last two decades. But this growth has not been inclusive enough and since the turn of the century government has turned their attention towards inclusive growth. Financial inclusion is an important tool for the growth to be inclusive. Financial inclusion defined by the Rangarajan committee as “The process of ensuring access to financial services and timely and adequate credit where needed by vulnerable groups such as weaker sections and low income groups at an affordable cost”. This statement says financial inclusion means financial services should be accessible to everyone especially to the low income section and these financial services should be available at a cost that is affordable to everyone. Different countries are in different stages of financial inclusion and in India it is to provide banking solution for everyone. In India only few are included with in the financial ambit.

(Download) UPSC IAS Mains 2014: General Studies Paper-1 (Indian Heritage and Culture, History and Geography of the World Soc.)


(Download) UPSC Mains 2014: General Studies Question Paper - I

Subject: General Studies (Paper - 1)

Exam Date: 14th December 2014

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1. To what extent has the urban planning and culture of the Indus Valley Civilization provided inputs to the present day urbanization? Discuss.

2. Gandhara sculpture owed as much to the Romans as to the Greeks. Explain.

3. Taxila university was one of the oldest universities of the world with which were associated a number of renowned learned personalities of different disciplines. Its strategic location caused its fame to flourish, but unlike Nalanda, it is not considered as a university in the modern sense. Discuss.

4. The third battle of Panipat was fought in 1761. Why were so many empire-shaking battles fought at Panipat?

5. Sufis and medieval saints failed to modify either the religious ideas and practices or the outward structure of Hindu/ Muslim societies to any appreciable extent. Comment.

6. Examine critically the various facets of economic policies of the British in India from mid-eighteenth century till independence.

7. In what ways did the navel mutiny prove to be the last nail in the coffin of British colonial aspirations in India?

8. What were the major political, economic and social developments in the world which motivated the anti-colonial in India?

9. What were the events that led to the Suez Crisis in 1956? How did it deal a final blow to Britain’s self-image as a world power?

10. The New Economic Policy – 1921 of Lenin had influenced the policies adopted by India soon after independence. Evaluate.

11. How does patriarchy impact the position of a middle class working woman in India?

12. Why do some of the most prosperous regions of India have an adverse sex ratio for women? Give your arguments.

13. The life cycle of a joint family depends on economic factors rather than social values. Discuss.

14. Discuss the various economic and socio-cultural forces that are driving increasing feminization of agriculture in India.

15. How do the Indian debates on secularism differ from the debates in the West?

16. Most of the unusual climatic happenings are explained as an outcome of the El-Nino effect. Do you agree?

17. Why are the world’s fold mountain systems located along the margins of continents? Bring out the association between the global distribution of fold mountains and the earthquakes and volcanoes.

18. Explain the formation of thousands of islands in Indonesian and Philipines archipelagos.

(Download) UPSC IAS Mains 2014: English Compulsory Exam Paper


(Download) UPSC Mains 2014: English Compulsory
Question Paper

Subject: English Compulsory

Exam Date: 14th December 2014

File Size: 1.41 MB

File Type: PDF

(Download) Civil Services Mentor Magazine, December 2014

Free Digital Magazine: Civil Services Mentor, December 2014

Issue : December 2014
Size: 2.82 MB
File Type: PDF

Table of Contents:


  • Financial Inclusion
  • India and Japan
  • Judicial Appointment Process
  • Juvenile Justice System
  • E-Governance
  • Selected Articles from Various Newspapers & Journals

Current Affairs:

  • National Issues
  • International Issues
  • Economy
  • India & The World
  • Science & Technology
  • Sports
  • Awards & Prizes
  • Persons in News

(Download) Essay Paper of IAS, UPSC Mains 2014 (Marks 250)


(Download) UPSC Mains 2014: Essay Compulsory
Question Paper

Marks : 250 (125x2)

Duration: 3 hours 

Write Two Essays, choosing One from each of the Sections A and B, in about 1000-1200 words each.

Section-A (125 marks) - Choose any one Essay

Write any one of the following essay in 1000 to 1200 words.

  •     With greater power comes greater responsibility.

  •     Is the growing level of competition good for the youth?

  •     Are the standardized tests good measure of academic ability or progress?

  •     Words are sharper than the two-edged sword.

Section-B (125 marks) - Choose any one Essay

Write any one of the following essay in 1000 to 1200 words.

  •     Was it the policy paralysis or the paralysis of implementation which slowed the growth of our country?

  •     Is sting operation an invasion on privacy?

  •     Fifty Golds in Olympics: Can this be a reality for India?

  •     Tourism: Can this be the next big thing for India?

Dear Members: lets discuss paper by adding your answers in the comments section below, our moderators will evaluate your answers and give Tips.

Courtesy: UPSC

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(Free E-book) Weekly Current Affairs Update for IAS Exam Vol - 30 (23rd June 2014 TO 29th June 2014)

Weekly Current Affairs Update for IAS Exam

VOL - 30 (23rd June 2014 TO 29th June 2014)

Issue : VOL - 30 (23rd June 2014 TO 29th June 2014)


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Covered Topics:

  • Ministry of External affairs

  • Planning Commission of India

  • National

  • International

  • Economy

  • Sports

  • In The News

  • Science and Technology

  • Selected Editorials of Importance

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