Candidates will be required to write an essay in English. Other questions will be designed to test their understanding of English and workmanlike use of words. Passages will usually be set for summary or precise.
General Knowledge including knowledge of current events and of such matters of everyday observation and experience in their scientific aspects as may be expected of an educated person who has not made a special study of any scientific subject. The paper will also include questions on Indian Polity including the political system and the Constitution of India, History of India and Geography of a nature, which a candidate should be able to answer without special study.
Theory of consumerâ€™s demand: Indifference curve analysis. Revealed preference approach.
Theory of production: Factors of production. Production function. Laws of return. Equilibrium of the firm and the industry.
Theory of value: Pricing under various forms of market organization. Public utility pricing.
Theory of distribution: Pricing of factors of production. Theories of rent, wages, interest and profit. Macro distribution theory. Adding up problem. Inequalities in income distribution.
Welfare-economics: Old and new welfare economics. The compensation principle, policy implications.
Concept of national income: Social accounting.
Theory of employment output and inflation the classical and neo-classical approaches. Keynesian theory of employment. Post-Keynesian developments.
Concept of economic growth and its measurement. Theories of growth.
Characteristics and problem of developing countries. Population growth and economic development.
Planning: Concept and methods. Planning under capitalist and socialist forms of economic organization. Planning in a mixed economy. Perspective planning. Regional Planning. Investment criteria and choice of techniques.
International economics: Theories of international trade, gains from trade. Terms of trade. Trade policy. International trade and economic development. Theory of tariffs.
Balance of payments. Dis-equilibrium in balance of payments. Mechanisms of adjustments. Foreign trade, mixltiplier. Exchange rates. Import and exchange controls.
I.M.F. and international monetary reforms. GATT; International aid for economic growth; I.B.R.D. and its affiliates.
Money: Its value and functions. Monetary policy, Functions of central and commercial banks.
Fiscal Policy and its objectives: Theories of taxation and expenditure. Objectives and effects of public expenditure. Effects and incidence of taxation. Deficit financing. Theories of public debt.
Use of statistics in economics, statistical average and measure of dispersion. Index numbers of prices and quantities-their limitations.
Basic features of the Indian Economy: Development strategy; Role of agriculture and industry; Role of foreign trade; Concept of balanced growth.
Planning: Objective, priorities and problems. Five-Year Plans. Problems of resources mobilization.
Agriculture: New agricultural strategy; land relations and land reforms; rural credit, role of irrigation and fertilizer; agricultural marketing. Prices of agricultural produce. Crop planning. Community development. Subsidiary occupations and rural industries.
Cooperation: Its role in rural development.
Growth of cooperative movements in India:
Industry: Strategy of industrial development. Problems of location. Problems of large and small-scale industries. Industrial policy. Industrial estates. Sources of industrial finance. Role of foreign capital. Public Enterprises: Organization, Management Control and Accountability. Price policy.
Labour: Employment, unemployment and underemployment Industrial relations and labor welfare. Labor policy. Wages, prices and economic policy.
Foreign Trade: Salient features of Indiaâ€™s foreign trade. Foreign trade policy. State trading, Balance of payments.
Money and Banking: Organization of the Indian money market. Functioning of the commercial banks and the Reserve Bank of India: Monetary policy.
Public Finance: Fiscal Policy, Growth of public expenditure. Tax policy. Main sources of revenue of Union and State Governments. Public debt policy: Deficit financing. Union State financial relations:
Probability (40 per cent weight)
Elements of measure theory. Classical definitions and axiomatic approach. Sample space. Laws of total and compound probability. Probability of m events out of n. Conditional probability. Bayesâ€™ theorem. Random variables-discrete and continuous. Distribution function. Standard probability distributions-Bernoulli, uniform, binomial, Poisson, geometric, rectangular, exponential, normal, Cauchy, hyper-geometric, multinomial, Laplace, negative binomial, beta, gamma, lognormal and compound Poisson distribution, Convergence in distribution, in probability, with probability. one and in mean square. Moments and cumulants, Mathematical expectation and conditional expectation. Characteristic function and moment and probability generating functions. Inversion, uniqueness and continuity theorems. Tchebycheffs and Kolmogorovâ€™s inequalities. Laws of large numbers and central limit theorems for independent variables.
Statistical Methods (45 per cent weight)
Collection, compilation and presentation of data, charts, diagrams and histogram. Frequency distribution. Measures of location, dispersion and skewness. Bivariate and multivariate data. Association and contingency. Curve fitting and orthogonal polynomials. Bivariate distributions. Bivariate normal distribution. Regression-Linear, polynomial. Distribution of the correlation coefficient. Partial and multiple correlation. Intraclass correlation. Correlation ratio.
Standard errors and large sample tests. Sampling distributions of x; s2, t, chi-square and F; tests of significance based on them.
Non-parametric test-sign; median, run, Wilcoxon, Mann- Whitney, Wald-Wolfowitz, etc. Rank order Statistics-minimum, maximum range and median.
Numerical Analysis (15 per cent weight)
Interpolation formulae (with remainder terms) due to Lagrange, Newton-Gregory, Newton (Dividend difference), Gauss and Stirling: Euler-Maclaurinâ€™s summation formula. Inverse interpolation. Numerical integration and differentiation. Difference equations, of their first order. Linear difference equations with constant, Coefficients.
Linear: Models (25 per cent weight) Theory of linear estimation. Gauss-Markoff set up. Least square estimators. Use of g-inverse. Analysis of one-way and two-way classified data-fixed, mixed and random effect models. Test for regression coefficients.
Estimation (25 per cent weight)
Characteristics of a good estimator. Estimation method of maximum likelihood, minimum chi-square moments, and least squares. Optimal -properties of maximum likelihood estimators. minimum variance, unbiased estimators. Minimum variance bound estimators. Cramer-Rao inequality. Bhattacharya bounds. Sufficient estimator. Factorization theorem. Complete statistics Rao-Blackwell theorem. Confidence interval estimation. Optimum confidence bounds.
Hypothesis Testing (25 per cent Weight)
Simple and composite hypothesis Two kinds of error. Critical region. Different types of critical regions and similar regions. Power function. Most powerful and uniformly most powerful tests. Neyman-Pearson fundamental lemma. Unbiased pest. Randomized test. Likelihood ratio test. Waldâ€™s SPRT. OC and ASN functions. Elements off decision and game theory.
Multivariate Analysis (25 per cent weight)
Multivariate normal distribution. Estimation of mean Vector and covariance matrix. Distribution of Hotellings T2 statistics. Mahalanobisâ€™ D2 statistics, partial and multiple correlation coefficients in samples from a multivariate normal population. Wishartâ€™s distribution its reproductive and other properties. Wilkâ€™s criterion. Discriminant function. Principal components. Cononial variates and correlations.
Part A (Compulsory for all)
Sampling Techniques (35 per cent weight)
Census versus sample survey. Pilot and large-scale sample surveys. Sample random sampling with and without replacement. Strati8ed sampling and sample allocations Cost and variance functions. Ratio and regression methods of estimation. Sampling with probability proportional to size. Cluster double multi-phase, multi-state and systematic sampling. Interpenetrating sub-sampling on-sampling errors.
Economics Statistics (25 per cent weight)
Components of time series. Methods of their determination variate difference method Yule-Slutsky effect. Correlogram. Autoregressive models of first and second order. Periodogram analysis. Index numbers of pieces and quantities and their relative merits. Construction of index numbers of wholesale and consumer prices. Income distribution-Pareto and Engel curves. Concentration curve. Methods of estimating national income. Inter-sectoral flows Inter-industry table:
Part B (Candidates will be allowed option of answering questions on any one of the following topics)
Statistical Quality Control and Operations Research (40 per cent weight) Different kinds of control charts of variable and attributes.
Acceptance sampling by attributes-Single double, multiple and sequential sampling plans. OC and ASN functions. Concept of AOQL and ATL. Acceptance sampling by variable-use of dodge-Romig and other tables.
Operations research-approach elements of linear programming. Simplex procedure. Transport and assignment problems. Principle of duality. Single and multi-period inventory control models. ABC analysis. Characteristics of a waiting line model. M/M/I, M/M/C models. General simulation problems. Replacement models for items that fail and of items that deteriorates.
Demography and Vital Statistics (40 per cent weight)
The life table, its constitution and properties. Makehams and Gompertz curves. National life tables. U.N. model life tables. Abridged life tables. Stable and stationary populations. Different birth rates. Total fertility rate. Gross and net reproduction rates. Different mortality rates. Standardized death rate. Internal and international migration: net migration. International and post censal estimates. Projection methods including logistic curve, fitting. Decennial population census in India.
Design and Analysis of Experiments (40 per cent weight)
Principles of design of experiments. Layout and analysis of completely randomized, randomized block and Latin square designs. Factorial experiments and confounding in 2n and 38 experiments. Split plot and strip-plot designs. Construction and analysis of balanced and partially balanced incomplete block designs. Analysis of covariance. Analysis of non-orthogonal data. Analysis of missing and mixed plot data.
Econometrics (40 per cent weight)
Theory and analysis of consumer demand-specification and estimation of demand function. Demand elasticityâ€™s: Structure and model. Estimation of parameters in single equation model-classical least squares generalized least-square, heteroscedasticity, serial correlation multicollinearity errors in variable model.
Simultaneous equation models-identification rank and other conditions. Indirect least squares and two stages least squares short-term economic forecasting.