Engineering Paper - I
Fluid and Particle Dynamics
Viscosity of fluids. Laminar and turbulent flows. Equation of continuity and
Navier-Stokes equition-Bernoulliâ€™s theorem. Flow meters. Fluid drag and
pressure drop due to friction, Reynoldâ€™s Number and friction factor - effect
of pipe roughness. Economic pipe diameter. Pumps, water, air/steam jet
ejectors, compressors, blowers and fans. Agitation and mixing of liquids.
Mixing of solids and pastes. Crushing and Grinding - principles and equipment.
Rittingerâ€™s and Bondâ€™s laws. Filtration and filtration equipment.
Fluid-particle mechanics - free and hindered settling. Fluidisation and
minimum fluidization velocity, concepts of compressible and incompressible
flow. Transport of Solids.
(b) Mass Transfer
Molecular diffusion coefficients, First and second law and diffusion, mass
transfer coefficients, film and penetration theories of mass transfer.
Distillation, simple distillation, relative volatility, fractional
distillation, plate and packed columns for distillation. Calculation of
theoretical number of plates. Liquid-liquid equilibria. Extraction - theory
and practice; Design of gas-absorption columns. Drying. Humidification,
dehumidification. Crystallisation. Design of equipment.
(c) Heat Taransfer
Conduction, thermal conductivity, extended surface heat transfer. Convection -
free and forced. Heat transfer coefficients - Nusselt Number. LMTD and
effectiveness. NTU methods for the design of Double Pipe and Shell & Tube
Heat Exchangers. Analogy between heat and momentum transfer. Boiling and
condensation heat transfer. Single and multiple-effect evaporators. Rediation
- Stefan-Boltzman Law, emissivity and absorptivity. Calculation of heat load
of a furnace. Solar heaters.
(d) Noval Separation Processes
Equilibrium separation processes - ion-exchange, osmosis, electro-dialysis,
reverse osmosis, ultra-filtration and other membrane processes. Molecular
distillation. super critical fluid extraction.
(e) Process Equipment Design
Fractors affecting vessel design criteria - Cost considerations. Design of
storage vessels-vertical, horizontal spherical, underground tanks for
atmospheric and higher pressure. Design of closures flat and eliptical head.
Design of supports. Materials of construction-characteristics and selection.
(f) Process Dynamics and Control
Measuring instruments for process variables like level, pressure, flow,
temperature pH and concentration with indication in
visual/pneumatic/analog/digital signal forms. Control variable, manipulative
variable and load variables. Linear control theory-Laplace, transforms. PID
controllers. Block diagram represenation transient and frequency response,
stability of closed loop system. Advanced control strategies. Computer based
(a) Material and Energy Balances
Material and energy balance calculations in processes with
recycle/bypass/purge. Combustion of solid/liquid/gaseous fuels, stoichiometric
relationships and excess air requirements. Adiabatic flame temperature.
(b) Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics
Laws of thermodynamics. PVT relationships for pure components and
mixtures. Energy functions and inter-relationships - Maxwellâ€™s relations.
Fugacity, activity and chemical potential. Vapour-liquid equilibria, for
ideal/non-ideal, single and multi component systems. eriteria for chemical
reaction equilibrium, equilibrium constant and equillibrium conversions.
Thermodynamic cycles - refrigeration and power.
(c) Chemical Reaction Engineering :
Batch reactors - kinetics of homogeneous reactions and interpretation of
kinetic data. Ideal flow reactors - CSTR, plug flow reactors and their
perofrmance equations. Temperature effects and run-away reactions.
Heterogeneous reactions - catalytic and non-catalytic and gas-solid and
gas-liquid reactions. Intrinsic kinetics and global rate concept. Importance
of interphase and intraparticle mass transfer on performance. Effectiveness
factor. Isothermal and non-isothermal reactors and reactor stability.
(d) Chemical Technology
Natural organic products - Wood and wood-based chemicals, pulp and paper,
Agro industries - sugar, Edible oils extraction (including tree based seeds),
Soaps and detergents. Essential oils - Biomass gasification (including
biogas). Coal and coal chemical. Petroleium and Natural gas-Petroleum refining
(Atomospheric distillation/cracking/reforming) - Petrochemical industries -
Polyethylenes (LDPE/HDPE/LLDPE), Polyvinyl Chloride, Polystyrene. Ammonia
manufacture. Cement and lime industries. Paints and varnishes. Glass and
ceremics. Fermentation - alcohol and antibiotics.
(e) Environmental Engineering and Safety
Ecology and Environment. Sources of pollutants in air and water. Green
house effect, ozone layer depletion, acid rain. Micrometeorology and
dispersion of pollutants in environment. Measurement techniques of pollutant
levels and their control strategies. Solid wastes, their hazards and their
disposal techniques. Design and performance analysis of pollution control
equipment. Fire and explosion hazards rating - HAZOP and HAZAN. Emergency
planning, disaster management. Environmental legislations - water, air
environment protection Acts. Forest (Conservation) Act.
(f) Process Engineering Economics :
Fixed and working capital requirement for a process industry and estimation
methods. Cost estimation and comparison of alternatives. Net present value by
discounted cash flow. Pay back analysis. IRR, Depreciation, taxes and
insurance. Break-even point analysis. Project scheduling - PERT and CPM.
Profit and loss account, balance sheet and financial statement. Plant location
and plant layout including piping.