Special Class Railway Apprentices Exam (UPSC)
Direct Recruitment to the Special Class Railway
Apprentices' is made through the Union Public Service Commission (UPSC) on the
basis of the Annual Competitive Examinations. Recruitment to the Indian Railway
Traffic Service (IRTS) and the Indian Railway Accounts Service (IRAS) is done on
the basis of the result of the Civil Services Examination (The Indian
Administrative service examination) and that to the Indian Railway services of
Engineers (IRSE), Indian Railway Service of Electrical Engineers (IRSEE) and
Indian Railway Services Stores (IRSS) is made on the basis of the Combined
Engineering Service Examination.
Recruitment of Clerks, Assistant Station
masters, Ticket Collectors, train Collectors and other vacancies is also done
through direct recruitment by the Railway Recruitment Boards in different
states. Depending upon the vacancies that arise, these boards call out for exams
for different posts. These Boards are located at 19 centres in Allahabad (www.rrbald.nic.in),
Ahmedabad, Ajmer( www.rrbajmer.org), Chandigarh, Jammu, Gorakhpur, Patna (www.rrbpatna.org)
, Guwahati, Calcutta, Bhubaneswar( www.rrbbbs.org), Chennai (www.rrbchennai.net),
Trivandrum, Bangalore, Secunderabad (www.rrbsc.org), Mumbai, Bhopal , Malda,
Ranchi etc. The Boards advertise the vacancies through newspapers and the
Employment News and conduct both written examinations and interviews.
Recruitment is made in the lowest grades to these categories and prescribed
qualification is generally matriculation. For some posts like Commercial
Apprentice, Traffic Apprentice, Asstt. Station Master, Clerk Grade I, guards
etc., prescribed qualification is a degree from a recognised University.
For Recruitment to the Indian Railway Service
Mechanical Department, there is a dual method, one is by Combined Engineering
Service Examination and the other is UPSC Special Class Railway Apprentices'
Examination. Approximately, 50 percent are recruited as the Special Class
Railway Apprentices through the U.P.S.C. Exam. This examination is held once a
year, generally in the month of July. Blank application forms and other
particulars are published in Employment News, generally in the month of
A candidate must be either a citizen of India,
or a subject of Nepal, or a subject of Bhutan, or a Tibetan refugee who came
over to India before 1st January, 1962 with the intention of permanently
settling in India. or a person of Indian origin who has migrated from Pakistan,
Burma, Sri Lanka, East African countries of Kenya, Uganda, the United Republic
of Tanzania, Zambia, Malawi, Zaire, Ethiopia or from Vietnam with the intention
of permanently settling in India.
Educational qualification -
For admission to the examination a candidate must have passed in the
first or second division, the Intermediate or an equivalent Examination
of a University or Board approved by the Government of India with
Mathematics and at least one of the subjects Physics and Chemistry as
subjects of the examination. Graduates with Mathematics and at least one
of the subjects Physics and Chemistry as their degree subjects may also
Must have passed in the first or second division, the Higher Secondary
(12 years) Examination under 10 plus 2 pattern of School Education with
Mathematics and atleast one of the subjects Physics and Chemistry as
subjects of the examination,
Must have passed the first year Examination under the three year degree
course of a university or the first examination of the three year
diploma course in Rural Service of the National Council for Rural Higher
Education or the third year Examination for promotion to the 4th year of
the four year B.A./B.Sc. (Evening College) Course of the Madras
University with Mathematics and at least one of the subjects Physics and
Chemistry as subjects of the examination provided that before joining
the degree/diploma course he passed the Higher Secondary examination or
the Pre-University or equivalent examination in the first or second
Candidates who have passed the first/second year examination under the
three-years degree course in the first or second division with
Mathematics and either Physics or Chemistry as subjects of the
Examination may also apply; provided the first/second year examination
is conducted by a University
Must have passed in the first or second division the Pre-Engineering
Examination of a University, approved by the Government of India
Must have passed in the first or second division the Pre-Professional/
Pre- Technological Examination of any Indian University or a recognised
Board, with Mathematics and at least, one of the subjects Physics and
Chemistry as subjects of the examination conducted one year after the
Higher Secondary or Pre-University stage;
Must have passed the first year examination under the five year
Engineering Degree Course of a University : Provided that before joining
the Degree Course, he passed the Higher Secondary Examination or
pre-University or equivalent examination in the first or second
Candidates who have passed the first year Examination of the five-year
Engineering Degree Course in the first or second division may also apply
provided the first year Examination is conducted by a University
Must have passed in the first or second division the Pre-Degree
Examination of the Universities of Kerala and Calicut with Mathematics
and at least one of the subjects Physics and Chemistry as subjects of
Age: Minimum 17 years and maximum age should be
less than 21 years as on August 1 of the year of examination. Age is relaxable
for SC/ST and certain other categories.
Fee: Rs.50/- is payable by the Candidates
seeking admission to the examination .Candidates belonging to SC/ST are not
required to pay any fee.
The UPSC have developed an application form
common for all their examinations which will be processed on computerized
machines. This application form along with an Information Brochure containing
general instructions for filling up the form, an acknowledgement card and an
envelope for sending the application is obtainable from the designated Head Post
Offices/Post Offices throughout the country as listed below of Notice against
cash payment of Rs. 20/- (Rupees twenty only). Form should be purchased from the
designated Post Offices only and not from any other agency. This form can be
used only once and for only one examination. Candidates must use the form
supplied with the Information Brochure only and they should in no case use
photocopy/reproduction/unauthorized printed copy of the Form. Since this form is
electronically scanable, due care should be taken to fill up the application
form correctly. The candidates should also fill up in the relevant places of the
Acknowledgement Card, their Application Form Number (8-digit) and the name of
the examination. The applicants are required to affix the postage stamp of Rs.
6/- on the Acknowledgement Card and send the same along with application form to
UPSC. If an applicant fails to affix the postage stamp of requisite amount his
acknowledgement card will not be despatched and Commission will not be
responsible for non-receipt of acknowledgement card by the applicant. The duly
filled in application form and the acknowledgement card should then be mailed in
the special envelope supplied with the Information Brochure. You should also
write the name of examination viz. "Special Class Railway Apprentices'
Examination, (& Year in which examination is held )" on the envelope before
despatching it to
"Secretary, Union Public Service Commission, Dholpur House, New
List of Head Post Offices/Post Offices
where UPSC application forms are available:
Andhra Pradesh Circle :
Hyderabad GPO, Hyderabad Jubilee, Kachiguda Stn., Khairatabad, Secunderabad,
Trimulgherry, Adilabad, Anantapur, Arundelpet (Guntur), Chittoor, Cuddapah,
Eluru, Kakinada, Karimnagar, Khammam, Kurnool, Machilipatnam, Mahboobnagar,
Medak, Nalgonda, Nellore, Nizamabad, Ongole, Srikakulam, Vizianagaram,
Vijayawada, Vikarabad, Visakhapatnam, Warangal.
Assam Circle : Guwahati,
Barpeta, Dhubri, Dibrugarh, Diphu, Golaghat, Hailakandi, Jorhat, Karimganj,
Kokrajhar, Mangaldoi, Nagaon, Nalbari, North Lakhimpur, Sibsagar, Silchar,
Bihar Circle : Patna, GPO,
Bankipur, Arrah, Aurangabad, B. Deoghar, Bokaro Steel City, Banka, Battiah,
Begusarai, Bhagalpur, Biharsharif, Buxar, Chaibasa, Chapra, Daltonganj,
Darbhanga, Dhanbad, Dumka, Gaya, Giridih, Gopalganj, Gumla, Hajipur, Hazaribagh,
Jamshedpur, Katihar, Madhubani, Motihari, Munger, Muzaffarpur, Nawada, Purnea,
Ranchi, Saharsa, Samastipur, Sasaram, Sitamarhi, Siwan.
Delhi Circle : Delhi GPO, New
Delhi, Indra Prastha, Ramesh Nagar, Sarojini Nagar, Lodi Road, Krishna Nagar,
Ashok Vihar, Parliament Street, UPSC PO.
Gujarat Circle : Gandhinagar, Ahmedabad, Amreli Anand, Bharuch, Bhavnagar, Bhuj,
Dahod, Godhra, Himatnagar, Jamnagar, Junagadh, Kheda, Mehesana, Navrangpura,
Navsari, Palanpur, Patan, Porbandar, Rajkot, Revdi Bazar, Surat, Surendranagar,
Haryana Circle : Ambala GPO,
Ambala City, Bahadurgarh, Bhiwani, Faridabad, Gurgaon, Hissar, Jind, Karnal,
Kurukshetra, Narnaul, Panipat, Rohtak, Sirsa, Sonepat.
Himachal Pradesh Circle :
Shimla, Bilaspur, Chamba, Hamirpur, Kangra, Keylong, Kulu, Mandi, Nahan, Recong,
Peo, Solan, Una.
Jammu & Kashmir Circle :
Srinagar, Anantnag, Baramulla, Jammu, Kathua, Leh, Rajouri, Udhampur. Karnataka
Circle : Bangalore GPO, Bangalore City, Basavangudi, HAL II Stage, Jayanagar,
R.T. Nagar, Bagalkot, Raichur, Rajajinagar, Belgaum Bellary, Bidar, Bijapur,
Chikmagalur, Chitradurga, Davengere, Dharwad, Gadag, Gulbarga, Hassan, Haveri,
Hubli, Karwar, Kolar, Madikere, Mandya, Mangalore, Manipal, Mysore, Nanjagud,
Shimoga, Sirsi, Tumkur, Udupi.
Kerala Circle : Trivandrum,
Alleppey (Alappuzha), Calicut, Cannanore, Ernakulam, Kalpetta, Kasargod,
Kattappana, Kottayam, Malappuram, Palghat, Pathanamthitta, Quilon, Trichur,
Madhya Pradesh Circle : Bhopal
GPO, Bilaspur, Ambikapur, Balaghat, Betul, Bhind, Chhatarpur, Chhindwara, Damoh,
Dewas, Dhar, Durg, Guna, Hoshangabad, Indore, Jabalpur, Jagdalpur, Jhabua,
Khandwa, Khargone, Lashkar, Mandla, Mandsaur, Morena, Narsinghpur, Neemuch,
Raigarh, Raipur, Raisen, Rajgarh (Biora), Rajnandgaon, Ratlam, Rewa, Sagar
Cantt., Satna, Sehore, Seoni, Shahdol, Shajapur, Shivpuri, Sidhi, Tikamgarh,
Maharashtra Circle : Mumbai
GPO, Andheri, Borivili, Chembur, Chinehbunder, Dadar, Girgaon, Kalbadevi, Mahim,
Mandvi, Mumbai Central, Ahmednagar, Akola, Alibag, Amravati, Aurangabad, Beed,
Bhandara, Buldhana, Chandrapur, Dhule, Jalagaon, Jalna, Karad, Kolhapur, Latur,
Nagpur GPO, Nanded, Nasik, Osmanabad, Parbhani, Pune, Ratnagiri, Sangli, Satara,
Sawantwadi, Solapur, Thane, Wardha, Yeotmal, Margaon (Goa), Panaji (Goa).
North East Circle : Agartala,
Aizwal, Dharmanagar, Imphal, Itanagar, Kohima, Radhakishorepur, Shillong, Tura.
Orissa Circle : Bhubaneswar
GPO, Angul, Bolangir, Balasore, Bargarh, Baripada, Berhamapur, Bhadrak,
Bhawanipatna, Cuttack GPO, Dhenkanal, Jagatsinghpur, Jajpur, Jeypore (K),
Jharsuguda, Kendrapara, Keonjhargar, Koraput, Nayagarh, Parlakhemundi, Phulbani,
Puri, Rayagada, Sambalpur, Sundargarh.
Punjab Circle : Amritsar,
Bhatinda, Faridkot, Ferozepur, Gurdaspur, Hoshiarpur, Jalandhar City, Kapurthala,
Ludhiana, Moga, Patiala, Ropar, Sangrur, Chandigarh.
Rajasthan Circle : Jaipur GPO,
Jawahar Nagar, Shastri Nagar, Ajmer, Alwar, Banswara, Baran, Barmer, Bharatpur,
Bhilwara, Bikaner, Bundi, Chittorgarh, Churu, Dausa, Dholpur, Dungarpur,
Hanumangarh, Hindaun, Jaisalmer, Jalore, Jhalawar, Jhunjhunu, Jodhpur, Kankroli,
Kota, Nagaur, Pali Marwar, Sawaimadhopur, Shastri Circle Udaipur, Sikar, Sirohi,
Tamil Nadu Circle : Chennai
GPO, Anna Road, St. Thomas Mount, T. Nagar, Bodinayakanur, Chengalpattu,
Chidambaram, Coimbatore, Cuddalore, Dharmapuri, Dindigul, Erode, Kanchipuram,
Karur, Madurai, Nagapattinam, Nagercoil, Namakkal, Pudukottai, Ramanathapuram,
Salem, Sivagangai, Tambaram, Thanjavur, Thiruvannamalai, Tiruchirapalli,
Tirunelveli, Tiruvallur, Tiruvayur, Turaiyur, Tuticorin, Udhagamandalam, Vellore,
Villupuram, Virudhunagar, Pondicherry.
Uttar Pradesh Circle : Lucknow,
Lucknow Chowk, Agra, Akbarpur, Aligarh, Allahabad, Allahabad Katchery, Almora,
Auraiya, Azamgarh, Bahraich, Ballia, Balrampur, Banda, Bansi, Barabanki,
Bareilly, Basti, Bijnor, Budaun, Bulandshahr, Dehradun, Deoria, Dhampur, Etah,
Etawah, Faizabad, Fatehgarh, Fatehpur, Firozabad, Ghaziabad, Ghazipur, Gonda,
Gopeshwar, Gorakhpur, Haldwani, Hamirpur,Hardoi, Jaunpur, Jhansi, Kanpur, Kheri,
Lalitpur, Mainpuri, Mathura, Mau, Meerut, Mirzapur, Moradabad, Muzaffarnagar,
Nainital, Orai, Pauri, Padrauna, Pilibhit, Pithoragarh, Pratapgarh, Rai Bareli,
Rampur, Roorkee, Saharanpur, Shahajahanpur, Sitapur, Sultanpur, Tehri, Unnao,
West Bengal Circle : Kolkata
(Calcutta) GPO, Alipore, Barabazar, Beleghata, Belghoria, Cassipore, Park
Street, Tollygunge, Balurghat, Bankura, Barasat, Berhampore, Burdwan, Chinsurah,
Cooch Behar, Darjeeling, Howrah, Jalpaiguri, Krishnagar, Malda, Midnapore,
Purulia, Suri, Siliguri, Port Blair (Andaman & Nicobar Islands), Gangtok (Sikkim).
Field Post Offices through Central Base Post
Office (CBPO), 56 APO;
2 Central Base Post Office (CBPO) 99 APO.
Exam Details and Exam Centers
The examination is conducted according to the following plan
Part I - Written Examination
carrying a maximum of 600 marks in the subject as shown below.
Part II - Personality Test
carrying a maximum of 200 marks in respect of only those candidates who are
declared qualified on the results of written examination.
1. The Subject of the Written Examination the
time allowed and the maximum marks allotted to each subject are as follows:
Paper I - General Ability Test
(English, General knowledge and Psychological Test) 2 hours and 200 marks.
Paper II - Physical science (Physics and Chemistry) 2 hours and
Paper III - Mathematics 2 hours and 200 marks
2. The papers in all the Subjects will consist
of objective type questions only. The question papers ( Test Booklets) are set
in English only.
3.In the question papers, wherever necessary,
questions involving the Metric System of Weights and Measures only will be set.
4. Question Papers is approximately of the
5.Candidates must write the paper s in their
own hand .In no circumstances are they allowed the help of a scribe to write the
answers for them
6.The commission have discretion to fix
qualifying marks in any or all the subjects as the examination.
7. The candidates are not permitted to use
calculators or mathematical or Logarithmic tables for answering objective type
papers (test Booklets). they should not, therefore .bring the same inside
Personality Test - Personality
Test carrying a maximum of 200 marks in respect of only those candidates who are
declared qualified on the results of written examination. Each candidate will be
interviewed by a Board who will have before them a record of his career both
academic and extramural. They will be asked questions on matters of general
interest. Special attention will be paid to assessing their potential qualities
of leadership, initiative and intellectual curiosity, tact and other social
qualities , mental and physical energy, power of practical application and
integrity of character.
Agartala, Gangtok, Panaji (goa), Ahmedabad,
Hyderabad, Patna, Aizwal, Imphal, Port blair, Allahabad, Itanagar, Raipur,
Bangalore, Jaipur, Ranchi, Bareilly, Jammu, Sambalpur, Bhopal, Jorhat, Shillong,
Chandigarh, Kochi, Shimla, Chennai, Kohima , Srinagar, Cuttack, Kolkata,
Thiruvanathapuram, Dehradun, Lucknow, Tirupati, Delhi, Madurai, Udaipur, Dharwar,
Mumbai, Vishakhapatnam, Dispur, Nagpur
Terms and Conditions of apprenticeship
for special Class Apprentices selected through the Examination
The terms and conditions of Apprenticeship are
as set out in the form of agreement prescribed in the Indian railway
Establishment manual, brief particulars of which are given below:
A candidate offered appointment as a Special Class Railway Apprentice
has to execute an agreement in the prescribed form binding himself and
one surety jointly and severally, to refund ,in the event of his failing
to complete training as Special class Railway Apprentice or to accept
the service as an officer on probation in the Indian Railway service of
Mechanical Engineers, If offered to him to the satisfaction of the
Government , any money paid to him and any other moneys expended by
government on him, the government being the exclusive judge of the
quantum of such expense.
The apprentices will be liable to undergo practical and theoretical
training for 4 years in the first instance under an indenture binding
them, to serve on the Indian railways on the completion of their
training, if their services are required .The continuance of
apprenticeship from year to year will depend on satisfactory reports
being received from the authorities under whom the apprentices may be
working. If at any time during his apprenticeship any apprentice does
not satisfy the superior authorities that he is making good progress, he
will be liable to be discharged from the apprenticeship. The government
of India may at their discretion alter or modify the periods and courses
The practical and theoretical training referred to above will be given
in a railway workshop for four years of their Apprenticeship. Special
Class apprentices must pass within this period either parts 1 and 2 of
the council of Engineering Institutions Examination (London) or section
'A' and 'B' of the associate membership of Institution of Engineers
India) Examinations. The apprentices are be granted a stipend of Rs.1300
per mensem during the 1st and 2nd years and Rs. 1400 per mensem during
the 3rd and 4th years. During the apprenticeship, the candidates will be
required to undergo both theoretical and practical training. There will
be in all six Semester examinations passing each of which is compulsory.
f unsuccessful at any of these examinations they will, depending on
their performance, be asked to sit for a pass in supplementary
examination or reverted to the next lower batch or removed from
Note: Except as provided for in paragraph 4 below or in cases of
discharge or dismissal due to insubordination, intemperance or other
misconduct or breach of agreement a week's notice of discharge from
apprenticeship will be given.
Before the completion of 4th year of training referred to in paragraph 2
above ,the apprentices will be listed in order of merit on the results
of the examination held and the reports on the apprentices received
during the period of apprenticeship. Successful apprentices are
appointed on probation for 3 years in the Indian Railway Service of
Note: An apprentice will be considered to have obtained the qualifying
standard if he obtains a minimum of 50% marks in the aggregate in all
the examinations held during the six semester examination of his
training. Including the marks of the reports of the principal, Indian
railways Institute of Mechanical and Electrical Engineers, Jamalpur and
of the deputy Chief Mechanical Engineer, provided that in each of the
six semester exam. he has obtained a min. of 45 per cent marks in the
aggregate and a min of 40 percent marks in any one subject.
Unsuccessful apprentices are discharged from their apprenticeship, one
month's notice of discharge being given along with the intimation that
the apprentice has been unsuccessful.
After Successful completion of 4 years apprenticeship ,the apprentices
are appointed as probationers in the Indian Railway Service of
mechanical Engineers, as per specified rules.
The questions will be designed to test the
candidates' understanding and command of the language.
The questions will be designed to test a
candidate’s general awareness of the environment around him and its application
to society. The standard of answers to questions should be as expected of
students of standard 12 or equivalent.
a) Man and his Environment -
Evolution of life, plants and animals, heredity and environment-Genetics, cells,
chromosomes, genes. Knowledge of the human body-nutrition, balanced diet,
substitute foods, public health and sanitation including control of epidemics
and common diseases. Environmental pollution and its control. Food adulteration,
proper storage and preservation of food grains and finished products, population
explosion, population control. Production of food and raw materials. Breeding of
animals and plants, artificial insemination, manures and fertilizers, crop
protection measures, high yielding varieties and green revolution, main cereal
and cash crops of India.
b) Solar system and the earth,
Seasons, Climate, Weather, Soil-its formation, erosion Forests and their uses.
Natural calamities cyclones, floods, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions. Mountains
and rivers and their role in irrigation in India. Distribution of natural
resources and industries in India. Exploration of under-ground minerals
including Oil Conservation of natural resources with particular reference to the
flora and fauna of India.
c) History, Politics and
Society in India - Vedic, Mahavir, Budhdha, Mauryan, Sunga, Andhra, Kushan.
Gupta ages (Mauryan Pillars, Stupa Caves, Sanchi, Mathura and Gandharva Schools,
Temple architecture, Ajanta and Ellora). The rise of new social forces with the
coming of Islam and establishment of broader contacts. Transition from feudalism
to capitalism. Opening of European contacts. Establishment of British rule in
India. Rise of nationalism and national struggle for freedom culminating in
d) Constitution of India and
its characteristic features - Democracy, Secularism, Socialism, equality of
opportunity and Parliamentary form of Government. Major political
ideologies-democracy, socialism, communism and Gandhian idea of non-violence.
Indian political parties, pressure groups, public opinion and the press,
e) India’s foreign policy and
non-alignment-Arms race, balance of power. World organisation-political, social,
economic and cultural. Important events (including sports and cultural
activities) in India and abroad during the past two years.
f) Broad features of Indian
social system : The caste system, hierarchy - recent changes and trends.
Minority social institution - marriage, family, religion and acculturation.
g) Division of labour,
co-operation, conflict and competition, Social control - reward and punishment,
art, law, customs, propaganda, public opinion, agencies of social control -
family, religion, state educational institutions; factors of social change-
economic, technological, demographic, cultural; the concept of revolution.
h) Social disorganization in
India - Casteism, communalism, corruption in public life, youth unrest, beggary,
drugs, delinquency and crime, poverty and unemployment.Social planning and
welfare in India, community development and labour welfare; welfare of Scheduled
Castes and backward classes.
i) Money - Taxation, price,
demographic trends, national income, economic growth. Private and Public
Sectors; economic and non-economic factors in planning, balanced versus
imbalanced growth, agricultural versus industrial development; inflation and
price stabilization, problem of resource mobilization. India’s Five Year Plans.
The questions will be designed to assess the
basic intelligence and mechanical aptitude of the candidate.
Length measurements using vernier, screw gauge,
spherometer and optical lever. Measurement of time and mass.Straight line motion
and relationships among displacement, velocity and acceleration, .Newton's laws
of motion, Momentum, impulse, work, energy and power.Coefficient of
friction.Equilibrium of bodies under action of forces. Moment of a force,
couple. Newton’s law of gravitation. Escape velocity. Acceleration due to
gravity.Mass and Weight; Centre of gravity, Uniform circular motion, centripetal
force, simple Harmonic motion. Simple pendulum.Pressure in a fluid and its
variation with depth. Pascal’s law. Principle of Archimedes. Floating bodies,
Atmospheric pressure and its measurement.Temperature and its measurement.
Thermal expansion, Gas laws and absolute temperature. Specific heat, latent
heats and their measurement. Specific heat of gases. Mechanical equivalent of
heat. Internal energy and First law of thermodynamics, Isothermal and adiabatic
changes. Transmission of heat; thermal conductivity.Wave motion; Longitudinal
and transverse waves. Progressive and stationary waves, Velocity of sound in gas
and its dependence on various factors. Resonance phenomena (air columns and
Reflection and refraction of light. Image
formation by curved mirrors and lenses, Microscopes and telescopes. Defects of
vision.Prisms, deviation and dispersion, Minimum deviation. Visible
spectrum.Field due to a bar magnet, Magnetic moment, Elements of Earth’s
magnetic field. Magnetometers. Dia, para and ferromagnetism.Electric charge,
electric field and potential, Coulomb’s law.Electric current; electric cells,
e.m.f. resistance, ammeters and voltmeters. Ohm’s law; resistances in series and
parallel, specific resistance and conductivity. Heating effect of
current.Wheatstone’s bridge, Potentiometer.Magnetic effect of current; straight
wire, coil and solenoid electromagnet; electric bell.Force on a current-carrying
conductor in magnetic field; moving coil galvanometers; conversion to ammeter or
voltmeter.Chemical effects of current; Primary and storage cells and their
functioning, Laws of electrolysis.Electromagnetic induction; Simple A.C. and
D.C. generators. Transformers, Induction coil,Cathode rays, discovery of the
electron, Bohr model of the atom. Diode and its use as a rectifier.Production,
properties and uses of X-rays.Radioactivity; Alpha, Beta and Gamma rays.Nuclear
energy; fission and fusion, conversion of mass into energy, chain reaction.
Atomic structure; Earlier models in brief. Atom
as at three dimensional model. Orbital concept. Quantum numbers and
their significance, only elementary treatment.Pauli’s Exclusion
Principle. Electronic configuration. Aufbau Principle, s.p.d. and f.
block elements.Periodic classification only long form. Periodicity and
electronic configuration. Atomic radii, Electro-negativity in period and
Chemical Bonding, electro-valent, co-valent,
coordinate covalent bonds. Bond Properties, sigma and Pie bonds, Shapes
of simple molecules like water, hydrogen sulphide, methane and ammonium
chloride. Molecular association and hydrogen bonding.
Energy changes in a chemical reaction. Exothermic
and Endothermic Reactions. Application of First Law of Thermodynamics,
Hess’s Law of constant heat summation.
Chemical Equilibria and rates of reactions. Law
of Mass action. Effect of Pressure, Temperature and concentration on the
rates of reaction. (Qualitative treatment based on Le Chatelier’s
Principle). Molecularity; First and Second order reaction. Concept of
Energy of activation. Application to manufacture of Ammonia and Sulphur
Solutions : True solutions, colloidal solutions
and suspensions. Colligative properties of dillute solutions and
determination of Molecular weights of dissolved substances. Elevation of
boiling points. Depressions of freezing point, osmotic pressure.
Raoult’s law (non-thermodynamic treatment only).
Electro-Chemistry : Solution of Electrolytes,
Faraday’s Laws of Electrolysis, ionic equilibria, Solubility
product.Strong and weak electrolytes. Acids and Bases (Lewis and
Bronstead concept). pH and Buffer solutions.
Oxidation - Reduction; Modern, electronics
concept and oxidation number.
Natural and Artificial Radioactivity: Nuclear
Fission and Fusion. Uses of Radioactive isotopes.
Brief Treatment of Elements and their
industrially important compounds :
Hydrogen : Position in the periodic table.
Isotopes of hydrogen. Electronegative and electropositive character.
Water, hard and soft water, use of water in industries, Heavy water and
Group I Elements : Manufacture of sodium
hydroxide, sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate and sodium chloride.
Group II Elements : Quick and slaked lime.
Gypsum, Plaster of Paris. Magnesium sulphate and Magnesia.
Group III Elements: Borax, Alumina and Alum.
Group IV Elements : Coals, Coke and solid Fuels,
Silicates, Zolitis semi-conductors. Glass (Elementary treatment).
Group V Elements. Manufacture of ammonia and
nitric acid. Rock Phosphates and safety matches.
Group VI Elements. Hydrogen peroxide, allotropy
of sulphur, sulphuric acid. Oxides of sulphur.
Group VII Elements. Manufacture and uses of
Fluorine, Chlorine, Bromine and Iodine, Hydrochloric acid. Bleaching
Group O. (Noble gases) Helium and its uses.
Metallurgical Processes : General Methods of
extraction of metals with specific reference to copper, iron, aluminium,
silver, gold, zinc and lead. Common alloys of these metals; Nickel and
Tetrahedral nature of carbon, Hybridisation and sigma pie bonds and
their relative strength. Single and multiple bonds. Shapes of molecules.
Geometrical and optical isomerism.
General methods of preparation, properties and reaction of alkanes,
alkenes and alkynes, Petroleum and its refining. Its uses as
fuel.Aromatic hydrocarbons : Resonance and aromaticity. Benzene and
Naphthalene and their analogues. Aromatic substitution reactions.
Halogen derivatives : Chloroform, Carbon Tetrachloride, Chlorobenzene,
D.D.T. and Gammexane.
Hydroxy Compounds : Preparation, properties and uses of Primary,
Secondary and Tertiary alcohols, Methanol, Ethanol, Glycerol and Phenol,
Substitution reaction at aliphatic carbon atom.
Ethers; Diethyl ether.
Aldehydes and ketones : Formaldehyde, Acetaldehyde, Benzaldehyde,
Nitro compounds amines: Nitrobenzene TNT, Anlline, Diazonium Compounds,
Carboxylic acid : Formic, acetic, denezoic and salicylic acids, acetyl
Esters : Ethylacerate, Methyl salicylates, ethylbenzoate.
Polymers : Polythene, Teflon, Perpex, Artificial Rubber, Nylon and
Nonstructural treatment of Carbohydrates, Fats and Lipids, amino acids
and proteins - Vitamins and hormones.
1. Algebra :
Concept of a set, Union and Intersection of
sets, Complement of a set, Null set, Universal set and Power set, Venn diagrams
and simple applications. Cartesian product of two sets, relation and mapping -
examples, Binary operation on a set - examples.
Representation of real numbers on a line.
Complex numbers: Modulus, Argument, Algebraic operations on complex numbers.
Cube roots of unity. Binary system of numbers, Conversion of a decimal number to
a binary number and vice-versa. Arithmetic, Geometric and Harmonic progressions.
Summation of series involving A.P., G.P., and H.P.. Quadratic equations with
real co-efficients. Quadratic expressions: extreme values. Permutation and
Combination, Binomial theorem and its applications.
Matrices and Determinants: Types of matrices,
equality, matrix addition and scalar multiplication - properties. Matrix
multiplication - non-commutative and distributive property over addition.
Transpose of a matrix, Determinant of a matrix. Minors and Co-factors.
Properties of determinants. Singular and non-singular matrices. Adjoint and
Inverse of a square-matrix, Solution of a system of linear equations in two and
three variables-elimination method, Cramers rule and Matrix inversion method
(Matrices with m rows and n columns where m, n less than equal to 3 are to be
considered).Idea of a Group, Order of a Group, Abelian group. Identitiy and
inverse elements-Illustration by simple examples.
Addition and subtraction formulae, multiple and
sub-multiple angles. Products and factoring formulae. Inverse trigonometric
functions - Domains, Ranges and Graphs. DeMoivre's theorem, expansion of Sin n0
and Cos n0 in a series of multiples of Sines and Cosines. Solution of simple
trigonometric equations. Applications: Heights and Distance.
3. Analytic Geometry (two dimensions)
Rectangular Cartesian. Coordinate system,
distance between two points, equation of a straight line in various forms, angle
between two lines, distance of a point from a line. Transformation of axes. Pair
of straight lines, general equation of second degree in x and y - condition to
represent a pair of straight lines, point of intersection, angle between two
lines. Equation of a circle in standard and in general form, equations of
tangent and normal at a point, orthogonality of two cricles. Standard equations
of parabola, ellipse and hyperbola - parametric equations, equations of tangent
and normal at a point in both cartesian and parametric forms.
4. Differential Calculus
Concept of a real valued function - domain,
range and graph. Composite functions, one to one, onto and inverse functions,
algebra of real functions, examples of polynomial, rational, trigonometric,
exponential and logarithmic functions. Notion of limit, Standard limits -
examples. Continuity of functions - examples, algebraic operations on continuous
functions. Derivative of a function at a point, geometrical and physical
interpretation of a derivative - applications. Derivative of sum, product and
quotient of functions, derivative of a function with respect to another
function, derivative of a composite function, chain rule. Second order
derivatives. Rolle's theorem (statement only), increasing and decreasing
functions. Application of derivatives in problems of maxima, minima, greatest
and least values of a function.
5. Integral Calculus and Differential
Integral Calculus : Integration as inverse of
differentiation, integration by substitution and by parts, standard integrals
involving algebraic expression, trigonometric, exponential and hyperbolic
functions. Evaluation of definite integrals-determination of areas of plane
regions bounded by curves - applications.
Differential equations : Definition of order
and degree of a differential equation, formation of a differential equation by
examples. General and particular solution of a differential equation, solution
of first order and first degree differential equation of various types -
examples. Solution of second order homogeneous differential equation with
6. Vectors and its applications :
Magnitude and direction of a vector, equal
vectors, unit vector, zero vector, vectors in two and three dimensions, position
vector. Multiplication of a vector by a scalar, sum and difference of two
vectors, Parallelogram law and triangle law of addition. Multiplication of
vectors - scalar product or dot product of two vectors, perpendicularity,
commutative and distributive properties. Vector product or cross product of two
vectors - its properties, unit vector perpendicular to two given vectors. Scalar
and vector triple products. Equations of a line, plane and sphere in vector form
- simple problems. Area of a triangle, parallelogram and problems of plane
geometry and trigonometry using vector methods. Work done by a force and moment
of a force.
7. Statistics and probability :
Statistics : Frequency distribution, cumulative
frequency distribution - examples. Graphical representation - Histogram,
frequency polygon - examples. Measure of central tendency - mean, median and
mode. Variance and standard deviation - determination and comparison.
Correlation and regression.
Probability : Random experiment, outcomes and
associated sample space, events, mutually exclusive and exhaustive events,
impossible and certain events. Union and Intersection of events. Complementary,
elementary and composite events. Definition of probability : classical and
statistical - examples. Elementary theorems on probability - simple problems.
Conditional probability, Bayes' theorem - simple problems. Random variable as
function on a sample space. Binomial distribution, examples of random
experiments giving rise to Binomial distribution.