UPSC IAS Mains History Optional Solved Exam Paper - 2010
:: Paper - I ::
1. Mark the following places on the map supplied to you and write short
descriptive notes on them.
(xi) Pandu Rajar Dhibi
(i) Korkai: Korkai is a small village in the Srivaikuntam
taluk of Tuticorin district in Tamil Nadu, India. It is situated about 3 km
north of the Thamirabarani River and about 6 kin from the shore of Bay of
Bengal. Korkai was the commercial capital and important port of the Pandyan
Kingdom of the third Sangam age. At that time, it was located on the banks of
the Tamraparani River and at the sea coast, forming a natural harbour. Due to
excessive sedimentation, the sea has recer+ed about 6 km in the past 200(1
years, leaving Korkai well inland today. The famous um burial site, Adichanallur,
is located about 15 km. from Korkai.
(ii) Eran: Eran is an ancient Indian historical city in Sagar
district in Madhya Pradesh state. It can be called to be the oldest historical
town of Sagar district in Madhya Pradesh. In earlier coins and inscriptions its
name appears as Airiki? a) From an early inscription at Sanchi we know that the
residents of Eran had made some gifts to the famous Stupa situated at Sanchi.
This city was the capital of Airikina Pradesha or Airkina Vishaya. an
administrative division of the Gupta empire.
(iii) Birbhanpur: Birbhanpur a nticrolithic site in
Birbhanpur village, on the right bank of the Damodar near Durgapur district
Burdwan, West Bengal, was discovered by AK Mukherjee, a local zamindar in early
1950s. Initially the site was explored and excavated on a small scale in 1954 by
BB Lal, the then superintendent of the Eastern Circle of the Archaeological
Survey of India (henceforth referred to as ASI). From this excavation the
geological context of the microliths were ascertained.
(iv) Rakhigarhi: Rakhigarhi is a village in block &tehil
Narnaund in Hisar District in the northwest Indian state of Haryana. around 150
kilometers from Delhi. Actually, Rakhigarhi is a common name for two separate
villages Rakhi Shahpur and Rakhi Khas. It neibouring villaes are Gamra,Habatpur,
Mirchpur etc.It lies on the Chautang River. In 1963 archeologists discovered the
village was the site of an extensive city, part of the Indus Valley
Civilization. Since 1997 the Archaeological Survey of India has undertaken a
detailed excavation of the site, revealing the size of the lost city (at least
2.2 km) and recovering numerous artifacts. some over 5,000 years old. Evidence
of paved roads, drainage system, large rainwater collection, storage system,
terracotta brick, slants production. and skilled metal working (in both bronze
and precious metals) has been uncovered. Jewellery, including bangles made from
terracotta, conch shells, gold, and semi-precious stones. has also been found.
(v) Sannathi: Sannathi is a small village located in Gulbarga
District of Karnataka. It is famous for the Chandralamba temple built in the
11th century. This temple is visited by a large numbers of pilgrims during the
months of March and April.This village is of great archaeological importance,
being the largest Buddhist site in Karnataka. Sannathi is about 60 km from
(vi) Issipattan: The Mulagandha Kuty Vihara (Mulagandha Kuti
Vihar) is the prime place of worship for the Buddhist congregation of the world.
It was constructed by Bodhi-Sattva Anagarika Dharmapala, a Sri Lankan who is the
founder of the Mahn Bodhi Society of India in the Isipatana Deer Park of Sarnath,
at the very site where Sakyamuni Buddha preached his first sermon. The
Mulagandha Kuty Vihara is said to be where Buddha spent a rainy season while in
Sarnath.The location where Buddha Shakyamuni taught the Kalachakra tantra lies
near the ancient town of Amaravati, situated few kilometers away from Guntur on
the south of-the river Krishna. From the 3rd BCE to the 12th CE, the city was a
flourishing Buddhist center.
(vii) Dhanyakataka: According to archaeolo-gists, Amaravati
stupa was built in the 3rd to 2nd centuries BCE Subsequent additions were made
in the 1st4th centuries CE under both Satavahana and lkshvaku kings. The site
lies close to the ancient Satavahana capital, Dhanyakataka. The stupa was the
largest in the eastern Deccan (36.5 in across and encircled by a 4.2 in path).
It was a brick structure covered with marble casing slabs. Most of the broken
carved capping pieces, railings and posts are removed and displayed in the
Government museum in Chennai and the site museum at Amaravati. See also this
archaeological page.The richly decorated stupa attracted pilgrims until the 12th
century and was ruined towards the end of the 18th century by a local zamindar
Sri Vasi Reddy Venkatadri Naidu in the anxiety to obtain building materials
(viii) Junnar: Junnar is a city with thousands of years of
history in the Pune district of the Indian state of Maharashtra. It is a taluka
headquarter. Situated at the base of the Sahyadri mountains, it is around 100 km
east of Mumbai and 94 km north of Pune. Also located near this city are Shivneri
Fort, birthplace of Chhatrapati Shivaji Raje, the famous Maratha king, Lenyadri
(girijatmak) and Ozar (vighnaher) both are from Ashtavinayakas. The land
surrounding Junnar is very fertile and the main crops harvested are rice, wheat,
and sugarcane. The town also holds a weekly market for fruit and vegetables on
Sundays. Junnar is also famous for its Ganesh decorations during the Ganesh
festival, being sometimes compared with the decorations in Pune and Mumbai
during the festival. Junnar taluka in Maharashtra has the largest density of
leopard population within a 500 knti area. It also holds the record for the
largest number of leopards trapped within that range ever. Junnar is also
surrounded by much greenery and dams. such as Vadaj and Manikdoh, common
picnicking locations. Also present are the ancient Naueghat caves
(ix) Edakkal: The name “Edakkal” literally means “a stone in
between”, and this describes how the cave is formed by a heavy boulder
straddling a fissure in the rock. Inside the cave is on two levels,, the lower
chamber measures about 18 feet long by 12 feet wide and 10 feet high and can be
entered through an opening of 5 x 4 feet. A passage opposite the entrance leads
upward to a aperture in the roof through which one climbs up to the next storey
whose interior is about 96 feet long, 22 feet wide, and 18 feet high. Light
enters the cave through a big gap at the right-hand corner of the roof where the
boulder does not touch the facing wall.
(x) Paithan: Paithan formerly Pratishthana, is a city and a
municipal council in Aurangabad district in the Indian state of Maharashtra. The
city was the of the S5tavihana empire of ancient India that ruled from 2nd
century BC to 2nd century AD. It is one of the few inland towns mentioned in the
famous Ist century AD Greek book, Periplus Maris Erytharaei. Pailhan is located
56 kin south of present-day Aurangabad on the Godavari River in Maharashtra.
Paithan was home of the great Maharashtrian saint , whose “samadhi” can he found
there. The little town is famous for its Shrine of ‘Sant Eknath’ where people
flock every year during the time of ‘Paithan Yatra’ also known as NathShashti.
(xi) Pandu rajar dhibi: The site was first excavated by B.B.
Lal in 1954-57. Subsequent excavations were carried out in several phases in
1962-1965 and in 1985 by the West Bengal Department of Archacology. While Pandu
Rajar Dhibi was the first Chalcolithic or Copper Age site to be discovered, a
number of other sites have been discovered in an area spread over the districts
of Birbhum, Bardhaman, Bankura and Midnapore, and interspersed by rivers
Brahmani, Mayurakshi, Kopai. Ajay. Kunur. Damodar. Dwarakcsvar, Shilabati, and
(xii) Karle: The sculpture of Karle chaitya closely resembles
the Buddhist chaitya halls. It is popular as the largest rock cut chaitya and
due to the fact that the Ekvira Devi Mandir is located in front of it. The
sculpture of Karle chaitya was made during 100-125 A:D. It is situated in the
Pane, Maharashtra. The sculpture of Karle chaitya primarily comprises figurines
and animal forms. The chaitya hall at Karle is apsidal while the central space
is in the form of a nave like structure. This, in turn, is surrounded by an
ambulatory. Besides the intricate sculptures there are inscriptions at Karle
chaitya which are of great importance. These inscriptions belong to the
Satavahanas and Western Kshaharatas. These have been carved out on the rocks in
the verandah, pillars of the hall and the court
(xiii) Badami: Badami was the capital of the Early Chalukyas,
who ruled much of Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh between the 6th and 8th
centuries, It was founded in 540 AD by Pulakesi 1(535-566 AD), an early ruler of
the Chalukyas. His sons Kirthivarman (567598 AD) and his brother Mangalesha
(598-610 AD) constructed the cave temples. The greatest among them was Pulakesi
II (610 x,42 AD) who defeated many kings but failed to capture Pallava’s capital
Kanchipuram. The rock-cut Badami Cave Temples were sculpted mostly between the
6th and 8th centuries. The four cave temples represent the secular nature of the
rulers then, with tolerance and a religious following that inclines towards
Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainistn. cave I is devoted to Shiva. and Caves 2 and 3
are dedicated to Vishnu,whereas cave 4 displays reliefs of Jain Tirthankaras.
Deep caverns with carved images of the various incarnations of Hindu gods are
strewn across the area, under boulders and in the red sandstone. From an
architectural and archaeological perspective, they provide critical evidence of
the early styles and stages of the southern Indian architecture
(xiv) Porkalam: Three dolmans already excavated by the
Department. Contents including prehistoric potteries and iron implements were
taken to Thrissur Archaeological Museum. The three dolmans with 5 cents of land
were declared as protected mouments by the department in 1935.Porkalam Dolmans
Location: Village - Talappally, Taluk - Talappally. District - Thrissur,
Location - Behind the Vedakkadu temple in Kunnamkulam - Kattukambal route.
(xv) Kalinjar: Kalinjar is a fortress-city in the Bundelkhand
region of central India. Kalinjar is located in Banda District of Uttar Pradesh
state, hear the temple-city and World Heritage Site of Khajuraho. The fortress
is strategically located on an isolated rocky hill at the end the Vindhya Range,
at an elevation of 1203 feet overlooking the plains of Bundelkhand. It served
several of Bundelkhand’s ruling dynasties. including the Chandela dynasty of
Rajputs in the 10th century, and the Solankis of Rewa. The fortress contains
several temples, dating as far back as the Gupta dynasty of the 3rd-5th
(xvi) Multan: Multan, which is derived from its name in
antiquity, Moolasthan is a city in the Punjab Province of Pakistan and capital
of Multan District. It is located in the southern part of the province. Multan
District has a population of over 4.5 million- It is situated on the east bank
of the Chenab River, more or less in the geographic centre of the country and
about 562 km (349 mi) from Islamabad,356 km (221 mi) from Lahore. & 966 km (600
mi) front Karachi. Multan is known as the City of Sufis or City of Saints due to
the large number of shrines and Sufi saints from the city. The city is full of
bazaars, mosques, shrines and ornate tombs. It is located in a bend created by
five rivers of the Punjab province. The Sutlej River separates it from
Bahawalpur and the Chenab River from Muzal’far Garh. The city has grown to
become an influential political and economical center for the country, with a
dry port and excellent transport links. Multan is famous for its crops: wheat,
cotton and sugar cane as well as mangoes, citrus, guavas and pomegranates
(xvii) Bairat: The ancient name of the town was Viratnagar,
and its history goes back to the time of the Mahabharata. Viratnagar was the
capital of the ancient Indian kingdom (Mahajanapada) of Machcha or Matsya. The
kingdom came under the control of the neighboring Chedi Kingdom in the 5th
century, and was later part of the Mauryan Empire. The rains of the
Bijak-ki-pahadi, a Buddhist Chaitya (chapel) from the 3rd century BCE, is the
oldest free standing Buddhist structure in India. The town also has the rains of
a Buddhist monastery, a wood and timber shrine, and rock-cut edict from Emperor
Ashoka that date from the Mauryan period. In 634 Xuanzang had visited the Bairat
and Mathura towns. He went east to Jalandhar in eastern Punjab, before climbing
up to visit predominantly Theravada monasteries in the Kulu valley and turning
southward again to. Bairat and then Mathura, on the Yamuna river.
(xviii) Chanhudaro: Chanhudaro (also Chanhu Date) is an
archaeological site belonging to the posturban Jhukar phase of Indus valley
civilization. The site is located 130 kilometers (81 miles) south of Mohenjodaro,
in Sindh, Pakistan. The settlement was inhabited between 4000-1700 BCE, and is
considered to have been a centre for manufacturing carnelian beads. This site is
a group of three low mounds that excavations has shown were parts of a single
settlement, approximately 5 hectares in size.Chanhudaro was first excavated by
Nam Gopal Majumdar in March, 1930 and again during winter field session of
1935-36 by the American School of Indic and Iranian Studies and the Museum of
Fine Arts, Boston team led by Ernest John Henry Mackay. After the independence
of Pakistan, Mohammed Rafique Mughal also did exploratory work in the area.
(xix) Rajim: Rajim, situated on the banks of Mahanadi in
Chattisgarh, is famous for an ancient temple dedicated to Lord Vishnu. N,’re
Vishnu is enshrined as Rajivatochan. The temple pis a fine example of
Mahakoshal architecture. A Nala inscription dating back to AD 700 bears
references to the Sarabhapura sovereigns.Rajim is 45 kin south-east of Raipur,
the state capital. Regular buses are available from Raipur.
(xx) Tripuri: Tripuri is an ancient town situated 13 km to
the west of Jabalpur on the Bheraghat road. Old name of this town was Tewar.
Archeological remains spread extensively over a vast area in the town. Tripuri
was the site of the 1939 session of All India Congress. where Netaji Subhash
Chandra Bose was elected president. A gate (Kamania) was erected in the city to
commemorate the event.
2. (a). To what extent archeological materials are useful in
understanding the progress of neolitic man in India?
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Q2 (b). Examine the significance of the deities depicted on the coins of
3. (a) Examine the view that sacrifice was a ritual and a form of social
exchange in Vedic India.
There is a view expressed in Indian history that sacrifice was used as a
firm of social exchange in Vedic India. A prominent historian Romilla Thapar
support their view.
The vedic -society comprised of Brahman, Kshatriya and Vish. The Brahmin and
Kshatriya were the non producing class and Vish were the producers.
Rigveda is the primary source regarding sacrifices. Soma
sacrifice, sacrifices to agni etc. were different sacrifice mentioned in
Rigvcda. The different deities to whom the sacrifices are offered include,
Indra, Vamna, Mitra etc.
The central ritual was yajna. sacrifice. The domestic ritual
with small obtain were performed unitarily. Gradually the more spectacular
rituals attracted patronage as they had a public function and only upper castes
The ritual of sacrifice was believed to sustain the well
being of clan and the system. Domestic prosperity, requiring an increase in
hard and good crops had to be prayed for, as well as success in kirmehes and
raids. Glods were believed to grant boons and even to participate unseen in the
rituals. Small ablations were restricted to the domestic sacrifice but from time
to time larger sacrifices were organised for which the dam brought substantial
The public sacrifice was a solemn occasion. The wealth
collected by raja through voluntary tribute and prestation from vish was
consumed in the ritual and is distribution of gifts at the end to other rajas
and to priests. The giving of gifts were believed to ensure a return of gifts
ever in greater amount. Sacrificial rites tended to increase the power of the
priest without whom the sacrifice could not take place and of the raja who
possessed the wealth it required. Collecting the wealth, meant pressuring the
Vish to part with their produce. The sacrifice assisted the Kshatriya to assert
great power over Vish and Shudra.
The raja’s gift to the priests enriched and empowered the
Brahmans. The sacrifice prevented the raja from accumulating wealth to the point
where his status would be based on economic power rather than ritual. Yet the
former was necessary to create the type of kingship associated with the notion
of state in which king controlled the accumulation and distribution of wealth,
among other things.
Q3 (b). Assess the role of guilds and trade organization in the development
of early Indian economy.
Literary and epigraphic evidence show that Stems or guilds
formed an important feature of economic life of people in ancient India. The
Shreni was more in nature of group of professionals. Merchants or artisans who
worked in an association.
Mahavastu and Milendpanho mention 75 different occupation
many of which were transformed into guilds. The Jatakas mention the number of
guilds as 18. The growing importance of guilds is a attested by the fact that
law-givers like Gautama and Manu recognised the rights of traders, cultivators,
horseman, artisan etc. to frame rules for their respective associations. These
rules were to be taken into consideration by king in giving legal decision.
Manu refers to Sreni-dharma as having the force of law.
The guilds beginning from 6’h B.C., gradually gained
importance in economy. They became crucial factor in organisation of production.
The vast majority of artisans joined guild, since it was difficult for them to
compete as individual against the guilds. With increasing demand for particular
commodities and the consequent necessity to raise their output some guilds began
to employ hired labour and slaves.
Leading guilds were those of potters, metal workers,
carpenter etc. Their size can be gauged from the fact that one wealthy potter
named Sadalaputta had owned five hundred potters shop. In addition he organised
his own destribution and owned large number of boats which took pottery from
workshops to various parts on Gauges. With increase in trade and commerce the
major guilds grew even larger.
Guild fixed rules of work and quality of finished product and
its price to safeguard both the artisan and customer. The guilds also controlled
the prices of manufactured articles and these either depended on quality of
work or were calculated according to fixed scale. Many guilds operated at local
as well as on larger country level. Certain guilds were also involved in
foreign trade. ‘Ayyavdle’ a guild from South India oper-. ated at longer long
distance trade. ‘Manigramam’, another guild composed of multiple nationalities
under took foreign trade. The ‘Royal connection’ of the guild was also a
significant factor which influenced the role played by guild in economy. Royalty
had a financial interest in guild. Investment in commercial enterprise brought
larger returns. Royalty thus had interest in ensuring well being of guild.
Another fact which emerges from inscription is that guild could act as banker,
financer and trustee as well. Generally these functions were carried out by
different category of merchants known as Sreshthin in North India and Chettyars
in South India.
4. What light do early inscription and literature throw on the status of
women in politico-socio economic sphere?
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5. Write short notes in not more than 200 words each on any three of the
(a) Provide a comparative analysis of the development of Arabic and Persian
The study of Arabic and Persian historiog raphy brings to
light a unique feature about these. The early historiographies were written in
pure Arabic. Later Arabic and Persian were used interchangeably with transition
to Persian historiographies in Mughal Period. Alberuni was the first prominent
muslim indologist. His Tarikh ul Hind, an authentic source of information about
the socio-religious condition of India, was written in Arabic. Taj-ul-Maosir of
Hasan Nizauii provides first historical narrative which untage the history of
Sultanat. Its medium of expression is a unique mixture of Arabic and Persian.
Later many hooks were written in Persian and Arabic. This includes.
Tabaqut-i-Nasiri of Minhajus Siraj; Tarikh-i-Firoze Shahi and Fatwa-i-Jahandari
of Ziauddin Barani, Tarkh-i-Firoze Shahi of Shamsi Siraj Alit. the famous
historian of Tughlaq period etc. Indian histography which has been recognised as
an Islamic heritage reached the zeneth of growth and development during the
Mughal period. The Mughal emperors were great patrons of education and learning.
There were cities which had predominantly commercial and
manufacturing character. For example Patna and Ahmedabad. There were pilgrim
centres where some trade and craft activities also flourished. Cities such as
Bananas. Mathura, Kanchi fall in this category. There were centres which
flourished because of distinctive manufacturing technique or skill or local
commodity. Bayana because of Indigo, Patan in Gujrat for dyeing, Khairabad in
Awadh for textiles. Other aspect to study the cities is the type of town
planning. Forts, mansions, mosques, gardens, bazar and other public building
were built in city. Bernier gives a description of planning of Shahjahanabad.
Q5 (b) Discuss social dynamics in Vijayanagar Empire.
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Q5 (c). Discuss different types of Karkhanas in Mughal India. How was the
production organised in karkhanas?
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Q5 (d). Critically evaluate various approaches to study medieval Indian
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6. (a). Examine the increasing importance of maritime trade of India during
13th to 15th century.
In historical studies the time frame from 13th , to 15th
century corresponds to the rule of Sultanat of Delhi. The establishment of
Sultanat of Delhi was a departure from commercial anemia which afflicted the
early medieval period.
The establishment of Sultanat brought different ruling class
that had needs of leisure and comforts of different type. The sultanat brought
about centralisation in India from political and economic perspective which
paved way for political and economic stability. Sultanat ruling class remained
town centred and spent on buying crafts and luxury items. Sultan also introduced
new coins, for example Iltutmish introduced silver Tanka and copper Jital, Moh.
Bin Tughlaq introduced the silver Adali. This led to the emergence of cash
economy and monetisation.
Such condition led to development of trade both internal and
foreign. The Khalji annexation of Gujrat enlarged trade relation between Delhi
and Gulf. Gujrat was connected with Persian Gulf as well as Red Sea. Merchandise
of Gujrat were also carried toward east i.e. Malacca. The main export from
Gujrat to Malacca was coloured cloths manufactured in Cambay. In exchange
Gujrati merchant came back with spices. This pattern of spices for coloured
clothes continued even after the Portugese advent in Asia.
The ports of Bengal had trade relation with China. Malacca
and far East. Textiles, sugar and silk fabrics were most important commodities
exported from Bengal. Varthema, an Italian traveller noted that about fifty ship
carried these commodities annually to many places including Persia. Bengal
imported salt from Hormuz and sea shells from Maldives.
Sindh was another region from where sea borne trade was
carried on. Its most well known port was Dabal. The region had close commercial
relation with i ersia.
The two principal items of import were (i) Horses - that were
always in demand for cavalay since superior horses were not bred in India and
(ii) Precious metals - i.e. gold and silver, especially silver that was not
mined in India but for which there was a high demand. Brocade and silk stuff
were imported from Alexandrian, Iraq and China. The Sultanate mainly exported
grain and textiles. Besides slaves were exported to Central Asia and indigo to
Persia along with numerous other commodities. Precious stones like agates were
exported from Cambay.
Q6 (b). To what extend did “monetary anaemia” afflicted the erstwhile
commercial economy during the early medieval period?
Early medieval period represented a feudal period. Feudal
system is based on lord and land rights. Favourable condition for the growth of
this feudal trend were decline in trade and craft, decline in circulation of
coins and agriculture became the mainstay.
The coin available of the period between (750950 AD) are few
and in no way match either in quantity of quality with coins of earlier period.
The absence of coin mould in archeological finds are also suggestive of paucity
of coins during this period.
There is an another point of view that there was no dearth of
media of exchange during this period. To illustrate, it is emphasized that these
was not only a long series of Harikela silver coinage but also cowries and more
importantly churni coas also functioned as media of exchange.
Apart from doubts about the period of emergence of these
coins, their extremely poor quality and purchasing power also indicate the
shrinkage of their actual role. The overall volume of money circulation was
negligible. The relative decline of metallic money during this phase is based on
convincing empirical evidence. During 960 to 1200 A.D. Substantial discussion
about degree and level of monetisation during the period. The text such as
Prabandh chintamini, Lilavati etc. mention bhagaka, rupaka, karshapana, dinar,
drama, nishka and many other coins. Inscriptional references like Siyadoni
inscription refers to varieties of drammaas in the mid tenth century. The
Paramana, Chalukya, Chakamana. Pala inscription corroborate most of the terms
found in contemporary literature.
As far as the actual specimens of coins are concerned,
Govinda Chandra, the Yahadvala King near Varanasi on U.P., the Chandella ruler
Kirivarman, Chola. Kings in Tamil Nadu also issued gold gains. According to one
estimate, about 9 mint’s were founded in different parts of Karnataka during
12th & 13th C.
Despite the plethora of references of coins, the evidence of
overall volume in circulation is almost negligible. Also the coins had poor
purchasing power of early medieval coins. All coins of this period were highly
debased and reduced in weight. Also in terms of rising population and expanding
area of settlement, the use of money seems to have been highly restricted.
Barter was another means of exchange in inter regional and
inter-national commerce. These are references which indicate that carvanas of
merchant exchanged their commodities with those of other region. A parallel
development of vedit instrument by which debts and credit could be transferred
without handling of cash money. There are references of handling as bill of
To sum up the period 950 AD to 1200 AD witnessed partial monetisation.
7. (a). Comment on Turco-Mongol theory of sovereignty. To what extent was
it adopted by Babur and Humayun?
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Q7 (b). How did Shivaji organise his administration andfinances to
consolidate his power? (for Answer Join Online Coaching for IAS Mains Exam)
8. (a) What was Indian response to European Technology?
The European impact on India was Firstly feeled with coming
of Portuguese. Portuguese ships and guns were seen as the bases of Portuguese
superiority at sea and attempt was made to copy them. Thus Zamorin of Calicut
weaned away two Milanese from Portuguese to manufacture guns for him.
In the field of ship-building the ships at Dabul were
reported to have been made christian like. The Ganj-i-Sawai the biggest ship of
Aurangzeb was armed with 80 cannons and 400 muskets. However ships were built of
unskilled marksmanship of the Indian shipbuilders.
The rulers and nobles were constantly on look out for
European novelties. They purchased glasses, spectacles, clocks. Abul Fazl was
aware of discovery of America by Europeans. These contacts however did not
spread out or induce a more systematic study of western scours. As Bemier
lamented there were no academics where subjects like geometry, geography etc.
could be taken up for study.
Even in field of military technology, India remained
backwards. In India there was no improvement on skin bellows, worked by wood as
hands. Efficient water pump was another weak point. An Englishman had offered to
Jahangir to pump water out of Jamuna. Like the Thames at London for use of
ordinary people. But the idea was reflected. Absence of water pump meant that
mining could not go below water level in mines. In the field of weaving and
dyeing, Indian technology was hasty backward. But India was backward in silk
reeling where European technology was slowly adopted.
India also remained backward in sphere of glass technology.
The use of telescope began only in 18th century. The reason for this has been
attributed to inability of science to delink itself from religion which became
an inhibiting factor in India.
Another view of some western scholars was that due to other worldly or
fatalist view of life in India made people unconcerned with progress or caste
system which bounded people in one station in life are no longer accepted.
It has been argued that Indian response to western science was selective in
nature depending upon convenience, utility exigencies or other material or
Q8 (b). How far do you agree with the view that the temples in early
medieval period were catalyst in spreading education?
The temples during early medieval period were fulfilling many
roles. Where a matha was attached to temple this complex was a counterpart to
monastery of earlier period. Where it received grants of land or village at too
becamee a land lord with accompanying power.
The temple was institution of Puranic sect and as such it too
played a civil role as a symbol of royal or local power depending on who was its
patron invest. ing in commerce, education etc.
The temple as on institution not only employed a large
hierarchy of priest and other administrative skills but also woula have provided
religious discourses and recitation of religious text. Thus there were
recitation by professional narrators, often with commentary of Puranas, Ramayana
Grant of land provided foundation for nuclei of brahmanical
learing. Temples received such grants and at times offered them. The widespread
distribution of these centres required text and training that were met through
increasing number of agrahasas and mathas. This encouraged the growth of lively
location for discourse parallel to the monastic institution of Buddhist and
Jams. The network of brahmanical learning expressed gradually established
dialogue between various schools and temples.
:: Paper - II ::
Q1. Critically evaluate the following statements in about
200 words each:
(a) The educated middle class in the 19th century often found the domain of
reason to be oppressive, as it implied the historical necessity of civilising
Indian society during those days was characterised by social
obscurantism and religious superstition. It gave an impression of a decadent
society. Social condition were depressing. Much evil existed and there was
ignorance of truth.
The plight of women was horrible. Evils like sari,
infanticide, child marriage, polygamy, purdha, were prevalent in society. Caste
was a dominant feature of entire social structure and there was a distinct
concept of privileges prevailed. Caste discremination was rampant and the
position of lower caste especially untouchables was degrading.
Colonial rule and its concomitant policy influenced Indian
life through various channels education, legislation, administration etc.
British introduced western education which imbibed the
Indians with rational, secular, democratic and progressive outlook. They were l
to spearhead the movement was women education. They brought large part of the
country under the fold of uniform administration. Creation of law and order
machinery, police system, introduction of land revenue administration were some
important measures adopted in order to bring about uniformity in administration.
They introduced progressive legislation like Regulation XVII of Dec. 1829 which
abolished sati, Bengal Regulation of XXI of 1795 and III of 1804 which declared
infanticide illegal, Act V of 1843 which declared slavery illegal.
The sum total of the influence acted on life and ideas of
people in multiple ways. The impact was more pronounced among the educated
Indians. A current of fresh ideology and though entered India in wake of
colonial conquest which gave birth to altogether new situation of ideological
conflict and oppression.
Q1 (b). Railway development in India provides an interesting instance of
private enterprise at public risk.
Under Dalhousie’s plan railway construction was to be
undertaken by British private enterprises under the supervision and control of
Govt. Some jointstock companies incorporated them with free grants of lands and
guaranteed interest at rates varying between 4'/z and 5% on capital outlay. Any
profits over the guaranteed rate of interest were to be shared with Govt. and it
reserved the right to purchase the lines after 25 or 50 years.
The British bankers and investor looked upon railway development as a channel of
role investment of their surplus capital. The British iron and steel
manufacture regarded it as an outlet for their products like engines, wagons,
rails and other machinery and spare parts by 1901 the total capital outlay was £
226, 773, 200 on railways. On the other hand railways made the imperialistic
exploitation of Indian economy and resources very easy for British. The railways
provided a cheap and easy system of transport of flow British manufactures into
India on a large scale and to oscine raw materials for her British industries.
The railways helped a lot to British to destroy the Indian industries and
The railways thus were constructed at an enormous cost to Indian tax payer
and for an equally enormous profit to British capitalist and industrialist.
Q1 (c) The active participation of Aruna Asaf Ali in 1942 movement
symbolised the role of women in Indian freedom struggle.
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2. (a). In terms of administrative structure the GOI Act of 1858... meant
more continuation than change. Do you agree? Substantiate.
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Q 2 (b) Punjabis fate after Ranjit Singh was foredoomed as the impulse of
nee, Victorian imperialism was bound to overwhelm it. Elucidate.
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Q 2 (c) The developments during 1937-1939 greatly undermined the ability
of the INC to push through the agenda of national unity. Comment.
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3. (a). What role did economic ideas play in early phase of British rule in
the shaping of land tenure policy?
Economic ideas played a very important role in shaping of land tenures during
early British rule. The influence of physiocrats in Permanent Settlement and
that of utilitarians in Ryotwari clearly underscores this.
Since 1770 i.e. even before Cornwallis arrived, number of
company officials and European observers like Alexander Dow, Henri Patullo were
advocating for land tax to be permanently fixed. Despite their various
ideological orientation they shared a common faith in Physiocratic school of
thinking that assigned primacy to agriculture in country’s economy.
Alexander Dow in his book History of Hindustan introduced the
idea of permanent settlement. This idea was elaborated by Henri Patullo, an
economist. Idea of reorginising Zamindars as proprietors of land or permanent
basis was put forward by Philip Francis also an economist.
Eventually, permanent settlement was introduced by Lord Comwallis in Bengal
and Bihar in 1793 which recognised zamindars as land lord.
In 1798 when Wellesley came to India he gave orders for its
extension to Madras Presidency. Here the problem was to find sizeable Zamindar
class as in Bengal. However an alternative was sought and polygars were
recognised at Zamindar.
But before this could go very far. In British official
circles these was growing disillusionment with permanent settlement which
provided no means to raise the income of government. This distrust for large
land lords was also partly be cause of Scottesh Enlightenment which invested on
primacy on agriculture and celebrated importance of farmers within agricultural
societies. This was also the time when utilitarian idea had began to influence
policy planning in India and among them was David Ricardo’s theory of rent
seemed to be hunting at a revision of existing system. Rent was the surplus farm
lord i.e. its income minus the cost of production and labour and the state had
a legitimate clam to share of their surplus at the expense of unproductive
intermediaries whose only clam was by virtue of no worship right. The theory
provided, therefore an argument to eliminate the Zamindar and appropriate a
larger share of increasing income from the new acquisition of land.
Q3 (b) Discuss the extent to which the Indian renaissance movement
contributed toward the sure of nationalist consciousness.
The renaissance movement symbolised the social reform
movement which were the 1" efforts to redeem India from the state of all round
degradation and to spread this sprit of revival and recreation from sphere to
sphere of national life.
These movement were Quiet Revolution-a revolution in social
and cultural realm. These movement generated a social climate for reforms this
was an attempt to transform the existing social milieu an attempt to rejuvenate
the socio-cultural system.
The movements revived the faith in India’s glory. They
instilled a sense of self respect and a new confidence in the face of
imperialistic disintegration of Indian society and culture. They provided a
cultural defence against the assault of colonial culture. They played a
significant role in quest and struggle for a new cultural identity and autonomy.
These movements were not an isolated phenomenon. The ideas
and activities of reformers were indirectly related to task of nation building
since the first reaction against colonialism took place in cultural arena, it
formed the preclude to national consciousness. It can be acknowledged that
these movement contributed toward nationalist thinking.
The reform movement contributed a great deal to the birth of
Indian nationalism. They were country wide movement influencing people
everywhere and not just in isolated areas. The reform activities crated the
people and the attack on institutions like caste which hampered social create
created a sense of oneness in people. Therefore they played an important role
in rise of nationalism. Indian nationalism armed at regeneration of entire
Indian society irrespective of caste and community. The nationalist tackled all
social evils on a national basis.
The religious reform movement helped many Indians to come to
terms with modem world in fact they arose to recast. The old religions into a
new modem would to suit the needs of the new social groups of society. As a
result of reformers outlook many Indians began to acquire a modern, secular and
national outlook in place of narrow outlook dominated by consideration of
caste and religion.
The religious reform movement contributed a lot towards the
making of modem India. As J. Nehru puts it “The rising middle class were
politically inclined and were not so much in search of religion; but they wanted
some cultural roots to cling on to; something that gave than assurance of their
own worth; something that would reduce the sense of frustration and humiliation
that foreign conquest and rule had produced. The religious reform movement
after all transformed India into a nation in the making.”
4. (a) To what extent did the process of commercialization of agriculture
affect rural scene in India?
Commercialisation of agriculture is a phenomenon where
agriculture is governed by commercial consideration i.e. certain specialised
crops began to be grown not for consumption in village but for sale in national
and even in international market.
Commercialisation of Agriculture (COA) adversely affected the rural
peasantry. The negative aspect of C.O.A. is as follows:
(i) C.O.A. did not lead to the growth of strong and prosperous agricultural
system. The condition of peasant remained precarious as before.
(ii) C.O.A. did not give boost to agricultural production which could benefit
peasants. This did not impart organised form of agricultural system in any way.
C.O.A. points toward gradual decline of agricultural system.
(iii) Owing to C.O.A. products got linked with Indian and world markets. This
brought peasant class under influence of market forces. The peasant class got
adversely effected owing to imbalances in market condition.
(iv) C.O.A. adversely affected self sufficiency of village economy and acted as
major factor in bringing the declining state in rural economy.
(v) Agriculture at that time was subsistence in nature and C.O.A. land emphasis
on production of cash crops when led to decline in local production. This
adversely affected the condition of peasants. Now under influence of C.O.A.
agriculture got associated with fulfillment of market in place of individual
(vi) Commercialisation effected traditional relations between agriculture and
industry. In Indian traditional relations acted as factors for each other’s
development which were hampered.
(vii) C.O.A. indicated a commercial revolution. But this was devoid of any
support from any technological revolution, Owing to true the healthy benefits
which agriculture and associated fields would have enjoyed were lacking.
(viii) An adverse effect of commercialisation on Peasants was that their
dependence on money lender’s and mediators increased. Peasants received only a
small fraction of profit.
(ix) C.O.A. did not encouraged growth of land market because major profit of
commercialisation went to company traders and mediators.
Inspite of having many negative effect commercialization in
one sense was progressive event. Commercialisation encouraged social exchange
and it made possible the transformation of Indian economy into capitalistic
Coin mere ialisation linked India with world economy. It led
to the growth of high level social and economic system. The important
contribution of commercialisation reflected in integration of economy. It also
created a base for growth of national economy commercialisation of agriculture
led to growth of national agriculture and agricultural problem acquired
Q4 (b) Discuss the factors that led to growth of Dalit consciousness and
mention major movements aimed at their empowerment.
Dalit movements were expression of growth of larger national and human
consciousness of Indian people. They were expression of democratic awakening of
The introduction of new system of education. new political and economic
forces which rested on principles of individual liberty, equity, and democratic
spirit percolated among Indian masses.
Dalit movement were fundamentally the movement to achieve
mobility on part of the groups which has logged behind. They were a reaction
against the social, cultural and economic preponderance and exclusiveness of
other class over them.
They also got a fillip through British policy of divide and
rule in which census operation played a sufficient role. British policy
classifying caste. On the basis of social precedence provided an opportunity for
making claims for social pre-eminence a through caste mobilisation.
Improved communication network made wider links and
combination possible; new system of education provided opportunity for
socio-economic promotion, new administrative system, rule of law under mined
certain previledges enjoyed by few and certain economic forces like
industrialization threw open equal opportunities for all dismantling social
All these factors contributed to the shift in position of
untouchables. Social reform movement such as those of Jyotiba phule in
Maharashtra and Sri Narayan Guru in Kerala also began to question caste in
Gandhiji integrated the issue of abolition of untouchability into national
movement and major campaign and struggles such as Varkom and Guruvayur
Satyagraha were organized. Gandhiji’s effort was to make upper caste realise
enarmety of injustice done via practice of untouchability. Dr. B.R. Amhedkar
emerged as major leader of Depressed Classes by late 1920’s. He concenbated on
SCs and formed All Indian Scheduled Caste Federation in 1942. He also cooperate
with colonial government on understanding that he could get more benefits for
SCs. The All India S.C. Federation also contested election, but its candidates
lost to Congress.
Others strands also emerged in different regions in Punjab the Ad-Dhann, in U.P.
the Adi Hindi and in Bengal the Namashvedsas. In Bihar, Jagjivan Ram who emerged
as the most important Congress leader formed Khetmajoor Sabha and Depressed
In early 1970’s a new trend identified as Dalit Panthers
merged in Maharashtra as a part of country wide wave of radical polities. The
Dalit Panthers learned ideologically to Amhedkar’s thought. By 1950’s Dalit
Panther had developed serious differences and the party split up and declined.
In North India new party BSP emerged in 1980’s under Kanshi Ram and later
Mayawati who became the chief minister of U.P. in 2007.
5. Critically evaluate the following statements in about 200 words each:
(a) He (Voltaire) was living in the Age of Enlightenment. The age itself was not
enlightened. E. Kant. (for Answer Join Online Coaching for IAS Mains Exam)
Q5 (b) “All long marches begin with small steps”
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Q5 (c) The essence of perestroika is for people to feel they are countryis
master n Gorbaehev. (for Answer Join Online Coaching for IAS Mains Exam)
6. (a) How far is it correctt to say that every feature of American
constitution was ultimately of English origin?
The American constitution was borrowed from various sources.
It also contains elements that were of English origin. The American constitution
reflect the elements of liberties guaranteed by Magana Carta and English Bill
of Rights. Political Philosophy and outlook developed in English were adopted.
It largely followed the pattern of British constitution.
However it is not correctly to say that American constitution
was entirely of English origin. Certain other elements are also visible.
Most of the sections were taken from constitution of
Federation. They were modified in light of new experiences. Some elements were
taken from the constitution of states. The constitution of states were based on
the constitution of colonies because most of the colonial tradition had become
part of American life. For example the finance bill was first introduced in
lower house and the judiciary has the right to review the law passed by
Constitution also rejects some influences of French
philosophers. Montesquien’s ideas about operation of power was accepted in
constituting the political system. It was linked with principle of checks and
balances. Constitution also exhibits anti-absolution principle. It also
exhibits anti-radicalism principle i.e. it negated possible excesses of a
democracy. This show federalist influence.
Q6 (b) What do you understand by imperialism? State briefly its unique
features in case of Africa.
The 19th century witnessed the emergence of two factors of
immense consequences viz. the building of nation and building of empire on
unprecedence scale. This movement is designated by term Imperialism. The term
imperialism represent a policy of extending a country’s empire and influence in
different parts of the world. In its broadest meaning it is national policy of
control over new areas. It also carries the suggestion that force is employed
both in establishing domination and in maintaining it. It can also be
considered as a product of basic drives and innate aggressiveness of men and
their ever-present desire to dominate or control their environment.
The features of imperialism in Africa are as fallows.
In political sphere imperialism proved to be blessing in
disguise for some counties. It was responsible for introduction of western
ideas like Nationalism, constitutionalism in Africa. It also brought about
political unity in Africa. Africa was segmented into different tribal
principalities. The presence of foreign rule provided an exiler for different
tribes to come together. The colonial powers also introduced an efficient system
of administration. The colonial people of Africa were for the 10"’ time exposed
to western administration.
The imperialist rule also led to slavery. The practice was commenced by
Portuguese in 1515 century. These excited a regular slave market in Lisbon.
On economic front the imperialist powers exploited the
African colonies by importing raw naturals at cheapest possible rates and
exporting the fineshed products at high rates. They also crippled the local
industries. The policy of systematic exploitation resulted in drain of wealth
and contributed to poverty starvation and bockwardness.
It also adversely affected religion of local people.
Christianity became thriving religion in many African countries. Imperialist
rule also led to social segregation. The European rulers treated their culture
as superior to Asian and African cultures and tried to impose the same on
Q6 (c) To what extent did Napoleons economic war with England become his
Continental system is the term commonly applied to economic
warfare waged by Napoleon on England during 1805-12. Napoleon argued that
England’s economy was predominantly based on manufacture and trade. To strike
the British commerce is to strike England in heart.
With Decree of Berlin 1803, Napoleon made efforts to close
the sea board from tranto (South Italy) to Hamburg (Germany). With Milan Decree
he brought England under complete blockade. Initially the Napoleon’s continental
system met with some success. Neutral nation like Denmark and Sweden obeyed
him. Russian also agreed to implement the system.
To counter this with Order in Council, British also
implemented a blockade of all ports of France and her allies. England also
bombarded the Danish port of Copenhagen and captured the Danish navy. English
could implement their blockade successfully due to their unquestioned supremacy
on sea. It was also physically impossible for Napoleon to extend continental
system over Europe.
His blockade of British Isles was a paper blockade because
he had navy to enforce it. It was never possible for him to seal the whole
European Continent to British goods or to pervert ships from touching British
port. As a result French blockade was a fiasco.
Napoleon also failed to present smuggling of British goods
in Europe. The Ottoman empire in eastern Europe was outside the range of
Napoleonic blockade. British goods poured in continental Europe form Ottoman
port of Saluniki.
Napoleon had to follow it a policy of continuous annexation
of sea hoard states of Europe in order to make his policy of boycott successful.
He annexed almost 2000 miles of European coastline. It caused great strain on
his army, finance and administration. It made his regime hateful to annexed
Portugal refused to close her ports to British trade.
Napoleon’s intervention in Portugal, his passage through Spain and deposition
of Spanish king by him and placing his brother Joseph on Spanish throne provoked
national feeling. The people of Spain revolted against him and the peninsular
war mined him.
The continental system provoked national hatred for
Napoleonic rule. The result of continental Blockade was impoverishment of allies
of France and their consequent hatred for Napoleon. Ultimately the Czar rejected
the system. It induced Napoleon to invade Russia which brought his down fall.
Thus the Continental system proved to be one of the main causes of Napoleon’s
7. (a). Critically examine Dutch colonial policy in Indonesia.
The Dutch began to frequent the island of Indonesia in 17'”
century. First of all they brought AmboYana Island under their control in 1605.
In 1605 they seized Malacca fronts Portuguese. Taking advantage of political
weakness of these Islands the Dutch established Dutch East India Company in
Holland. It made Batavia in Java the centre of its activities and began to gain
Culture system: Dutch were anxious to move these colonies a
source of their economic prosperity. So they started a new economic system known
as Culture system in Indonesia in 1830. Till now the main crop of Indonesia was
rice. The Dutch ordained that the farmers should cultivate in portion of their
land crop, such at tea, tobacco, black pepper etc. These were taken by
government in lieu of rent, so farmers got no return for time and labour. This
made their condition deplorable. Sensing public resentment against this system.
the Government of Holland abolished it in 1870 and replaced it by another system
known as Ethical Policy which aimed at encouraging private trading and helping
Indonesian or moral ground.
Like other counties of the world the movement for national
freedom started in Indonesia in early years of 20th century. In 1908 the P°
national organis action called Budi was established in Usada. This freedom
movement gained strength during first world war.
In 1927 Dutch government introduced several important reforms
in administration. A legislative assembly was constituted. Two third of it
members were elected and third nominated by Dutch government. Of the nominated
members 50% were Dutch and remaining were Indonesian. Higher post in
administration filled by Dutch selected through competitive exam but by 1941 84%
of the members of Indonesian Civil Services were recruited by from Indonesians.
During second world war in March 1942 the whole of Indonesia
came under control of Japanese forces and military government was setup. The
Poot-war Dutch Policy was declared by Empress Belhenunna on Dec 6,1942 proposed
to constitute an Indonesian common wealth comprising Netherland, Surinam and
Kurako where they world enjoy complete autonomy in internal matters.
After Japan’s defeat in war the island retrieved by Allied
forces were handed over to Holland. For their administration, Holland set up an
organization called Netherland Indies Civil Administration. In mid 1946
political condition in Indonesia was such that Java and Sumatra were independent
republic and other inland were under government of Netherland Indies Civil
On March 25, 1947 an agreement known as Linggodjat. Agreement
was signed between Indonesian republic and Dutch government. An independent
Federal State of Indonesia was constituted by merging other Dutch colonies in
South East Asia with Independent Republic of Indonesia. A union was constituted
by merging Indonesian united Federation and Holland.
The Hague conference in Indonesia was held on Nov. 2, 1949.
According to the decisions taken in this conference. Indonesia was converted
into federal state in which Republic government established under the leadership
of Dr. Sukarno. Holland handed over the Sovereignity to United Indonesian Sate
on Dec 27, 1949.
Q7 (b) “Europe faced peace in 1945 politically disorganized and
economically crippled. Elaborate.
In 1945, World War II came to an end and in its aftermath
Europe faced political disorganization and economic crises. Europe was
politically disorganized on two fronts. First was the division of Europe with
Eastern Europe under Russia and Western Europe under western power. Second was
the political disorganization which the European countries suffered within.
The end of world war brought to the surface the glaring
differences between Russian socialism and western capitalism. In year 1945
certain effort were made to resolve the issue peacefully.
At Yalta conference in Feb 1945, Russia, US and U.K.
participated to plan what was to happen after the end of war. Here some problems
erupted when stalin demanded that Poland be given all German territory cast of
river Oder & Neisse. It war also agreed that some members of London based
government should be allowed to join hubin’s government.
The port dam conference revealed a distinct coding off in
relations. Again it was over Poland that main disagreement occurred. Also
Germany east of order was under pro-communist Polish Government. The
establishment of communist government in Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria, Albania
and Romania in late 1945 alarmed the west.
Internally the countries of Europe were politically shattered. In elections
held in July 1945, Winston Churchill was unseated and a Labour Government under
Clement Atlee was established.
The political life of France was form by Party strafe and
class conflict. There were frequent changes in Prime Minister. A Provisional
Government was set up and a National Assembly was elected in Oct 1945 to draft a
constitution of Fourth French Republic. In Italy after the war a coalition
government was formed. In 1946, the government submitted to plebiscite the
questions whether Italy should be monarchy or republic. There was frequent fall
of Government in Italy. Post war Germany was in most helpless and pitiable
situation. It was disarmed and dismembered. More over it was occupied by 4
victorious powers- communism Russia, US, Britain and France.
Economically there was enormous destruction of lives, homes, industries and
communication in Europe. Almost 40 millions people were killed and another 21
million had been uprooted from their homes.
Large parts of Germany, especially her industrial areas and
major cities lay in ruins. Much of the western Russia had been completely
devastated and some 25 millions people were homeless. France suffered badly too
taking into account the destruction of housing, factories, mines and
livestock,, almost 50% of total French wealth and been lost. In Italy where
damage was very serious in south the figure was over 30%.
8. (a) The Eastern Question has always been an in ternational questions.
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Q8 (b) Explain the circumstances leading to emergence of Third World and
analyse itis impact on world affairs.
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