International action against climate change started with earth summit of
The UNFCCC is a “Rio Convention”, one of three adopted at the “Rio Earth
Summit” in 1992.
The UNFCCC entered into force on 21 March 1994. Today 195 countries have
ratified the Convention are called Parties to the Convention.
Preventing “dangerous” human interference with the climate system is the
ultimate aim of the UNFCCC.
The Conference of parties (COP) is the supreme decision-making body of
the Convention. All States that are Parties to the Convention are also the
members of the COP.
At the COP in 1997 in kyoto, the Kyoto Protocol was agreed. Agreement
commits its Parties by setting internationally binding emission reduction
Protocol places a heavier burden on developed nations under the
principle of "common but differentiated responsibilities."
The Kyoto Protocol was adopted in Kyoto, Japan, on 1997 and entered into
force on 16 February 2005.
It divided countries into three groups of Annex I, Annex II and Annex
Annex have industrialised nations and responsibility for reduction in
GHG is with Annex I countries. Roadmap for Kyoto ended at 2012.
It restrict the rise in global temperatures to below 2 degree C of
Nations submitted their own Nationally determined contributions to UNFCC
and it has calculated the total effect on the world.
Notes with concern that the estimated aggregate GHG emission levels in
2025 and 2030 from INDCs do not fall within least-cost 2 ˚
much greater emission reduction efforts will be required than those
associated with the INDCs
Urges those Parties whose intended nationally determined contribution
contains a time frame up to 2025 to communicate by 2020 a new nationally
determined contribution and to do so every five years thereafter
Decides to convene a facilitative dialogue among Parties in 2018 to take
stock of the collective efforts of Parties in relation to progress towards
the long-term goal.