(IGP) IAS Pre: GS - Indian History - Modern Indian History: Political, Social & Religious Reforms Organization & Movement

Modern Indian History
Political, Social & Religious Reforms Organization & Movement

Hindu Reforms-Organisations & Movements Arya Samaj

  1. Founded by Swami Dayanand Saraswati in 1875.
  2. Important works of Dayanand are Satyartha Prakash, Veda Bhasya, Veda Bhasya Bhumika.
  3. Swami Dayanand rejected Western idea and emphasized on reviving the ancient of the Aryans.
  4. His real name was Mulshankar and he was born in a Brahmin family.
  5. First Arya Samaj unit was organised at Bombay.
  6. Later on the headqurters was established at Lahore.
  7. Condemned idol worship. Disregarded the authority of the later Hindu sriptures like the Puranas. Launched a frontal attack on the numerous abuses like idolatry, polytheism, belief in magic, charms, animal sacrifices.
  8. Dayanand’s slogan of ‘Back to the ‘Vdas’ was a call for revival of vedic learning and vedic purity of religion and not revival of vedic times.
  9. Produced leaders of the eminence like Lala Hans Raj, Pandit Guru Dutt and Lala Lajpat Rai

Brahmo Samaj

  1. Founded by Raja Ram Mohan Rao in 1828.
  2. Condemned idolatry, caste system and religious rituals.
  3. Started a campaign for the abolition of sati, condemned polygamy and concubinange.
  4. Raja Ram Mohan Roy in the The Precepts of Jesus published in 1820, tried to separate moral and philosophical message of the new testament.
  5. Established Vedant College in 1825.
  6. He was the initiator of public agitation on political questions in the country.
  7. Devendranath Tagore Brahmo Samaj in 1842.
    • He condemned idol worship, discouraged pilgrimages, ceremonials and penances-among the Brahmos.
  8. Keshab Chandra Sen joined the Brahmo Samaj in 1858.
  9. Raja Ram Mohan Roy published his first philosophical work. Tuhbatul Muwahhiddin in 1805.
  10. He provided enthuisastic support to David Hare who, along with many other Indians founded the famous Hindu College in 1817.
  11. First split in Brahmo Samaj in 1867.
    • Brahmo Samaj of India led by Keshab Chandra Sen.
    • Adi Brahmo Samaj led by Devendranath Tagore. 12. Second split in Brahmo Samaj of India in 1878.
    • Church of the New Dispensation
    • Sadharan Brahmo was Samaj led by younger group.
  12. Raja Ram Mohan Roy established Atmiya Sabha in 1815 to fight against social evils in Hinduism and also to propagate monotheism.
  13. Raja Ram Mohan Roy also gave opinion on Permanent Settlement

Ramkrishna Mission

  1. Inaugrated by Swami Vivekanand (originally Narendra Dutta) in 1896 with its headquarter at Belur (near Calcutta).
  2. Ramkrishna Math was founded in 1997 as a registered religious trust by Vivekanand.
  3. Spread message of Vedanta and founded vedanta society in U.S.A.
  4. Carried on philanthropic and charitable works.
  5. Opposed untouchability and caste system.
  6. Condemned ‘touch me not’ attitude of Hindus on religious matters.
  7. Attended Parliament of Religion at Chicago (1893) where he emphasised on need for a healthy balance between spiritualism and materiaslism.
    • Him I call a Mahatma whose heart bleeds for the poor, othrwise he is a Duratma.
    • So long as millions live in hunger and ignorance, I hold every man as a traitor who while educated at their expense, pays not the least head to them.
    • Subhash Chandra Bose wrote - So far as Bengal is concerned Vivekananda may be regarded as the spiritual father of modern nationalist movement.
    • Ramakrishna Paramhans used to say - All different religious views are but different ways leading to the same goal.
  9. Ram Krishna Paramhansa Guru of Vivekananda was a priest at Dakshineshwar temple near Calcutta.

Theosophical Society

  1. Founded by H.P. Blavatasky in the USA in 1875.
  2. Later the US Army colonel M.S. Olcott joined it.
  3. Headquarters shifted to India at Adya in 1882.
  4. The society accepted the Hindu belief in re-incarnation Karma and drew inspiration from the philosophy of the upanishads and Samkhya, Yoga and Vedanta school of thought to promote international brotherhood.
  5. Mrs. Annie Besant joined it in 1893 & became the President of this society in 1907.
  6. She laid the foundation of the Central Hindu College is Banaras in 1898 where both the Hindu religion & western scientific were taught, which later on rose into Benaras Hindu University (1916).

Parmhans Mandali

Formed by Balakrishna Jayakar in 1850 in Maharashtra.

Young Bengal Movement

  1. Initiated by an Anglo-Indian teacher of the Hindu College, Henry Vivian Derozio.

  2. Derozio was a free thinker & a rationalist, who helped to promote a radical and critical outlook among his students.

  3. He was dismissed from the Hindu College in 1831 because of his radical views.

  4. Derozio is called first nationalist poet of modern India.

Tattvabodhini Sabha

  1. Established by Devendranath Tagore in 1839 to carry on Rammohan’s ideals independent of the Brahmo Samaj.

  2. A Tattvabodhini Press was established in 1843.

  3. Tattvabodhini Patrika, a journal of the organisation was started for the propagation of ideas.

Paramhans Sabha

  1. Established in 1849.

  2. Founder was Dadoba Pandurang Tarkhadkar.

  3. The first reform organisation of 19th century Maharashtra.

Rajahmundary Social Reform Association

  1. Founded by Viresalingam Pantulu in 1878.

  2. Emphasized on promotion of widow remarriage.

Bombay Social Reform Association

  1. Founded by M.G. Ranade in 1903.

Widow Marriage Association

  1. Foundation by Vishnu Shastri Pandit & M.G. Ranade in 1861.

Dharma Sabha

  1. Founder by Radha Kant Deb in 1830.

  2. Stood for socio-religious status quo.

  3. Campaigned agaisnt abolition of Sati.

Gandiya Sabha

  1. Founded by Radha Kant Deb.

Veda Samaj

  1. Founder under the influence of Keshav Chandra Sen’s visit to Madras.

  2. Truned into Brahmo Samaj of Southern India in 1871 by Sridhalu naidu.

Muslim Reforms-Organisations & Movements Wahabi Movement

  1. Started in Indian in 1821 under the leadership of Syed Ahmed of Raibaraily who was influenced by the teaching of the DelhiSaint Shah Walliullah.

  2. The main centre of this movement was at Patna.

  3. Aimed at refromation of religious life and restoration of political power of the Muslim Community.

  4. It was a kind of holy war.

  5. Syed Ahmed was killed in the Battle of Balacot in 1831.

  6. Suppressed by the British in 1870’s.

Ahmedia Movement / Quadiani Movement

  1. Started in around 1899 at a town Quadiyan under the leadership of Mirza Ghulam Ahmed of Quadim (Gurudaspur, Punjab).

  2. Aimed of restoration of the free and unpolluted faith of Islam to the followers of the prophet.

Aligarh Movement

  1. Started by Sayyaid Ahmed Khan in 1860’s.

  2. Based on the liberal interpretation of the Koran.

  3. It aimed at spreading western and scientific education among the Muslim masses.

  4. Foundation of Scientific society in 1864 to introduce the western sciences through urdu translation.

  5. Publishing of urdu journal Tahzib-Al-Akhlaq in 1870.

  6. Establishment of Aligarh Anglo-Mohammadan Oriental College in 1875.

  7. Muhamadan Anglo-Oriental Education Conference was started in 1866 for promoting western education among muslims.

  8. S.A. Khan was in judicial service of the company.

  9. 1878 he became a member of imperial Legislative Council.

  10. Work in 1860- The Loyal Muhammadans of India.

  11. Was given title of Knighthood in 1888.

  12. Opposed Ilbert Bill and said - Hindus and Muslims are two eyes of India.

  13. Founded Indian United Patriotic Association to counter Congress.

  14. Against the Indian National Congress withRaja Shiv Prasad of Banaras.

  15. Founded Muhammadan Anglo-Oriental Defence Association in 1890.

  16. Persons associated with Aligarh Movementassociated with him - Altaf Hussain Hali,Maulavi Nazir Ahmed, Maulavi Shibh Numani.

Farangi Mahal Movement

  1. Famous traditional school at Farangi Mahal in Lucknow.

Deoband Movement

  1. It was anti-British movement started by Md. Qasim Nanawatawi and Rashid Ahmed Gangohi in 1867 at Deoband.

  2. Aimed at upliftment of muslims through religious education and resuscitate classical Islam.

  3. Welcomed the formation of Indian National Congress in 1885.

  4. Deoband Ulema issued Fatwa against S.A.

Khan’s organisation-

  • India United Patrotic Association

  • Muhammadan Anglo Oriental Defence Association.

Khaskar Movement

  1. Started by Allam Mashirigi in 1931.

  2. It was based on religious ideology of early Islam.

  3. It was popular in Punjab, Sind etc.

Movement of Titu Mir

  1. Started by Mir Nitha Ali / Ttu Mir, a desciple of Syed Ahmed of Baraily in Bengal in 1820’s.

  2. It was independent off shoot of Wahabis.

  3. It was against the customs and beliefs borrowed from popular Hinduism.

  4. It came in conflict withHindu landlords and British Indigo planters and eventually with British administration.

Farzi Movemen

  1. Started by Hazi Shariatuitah in 1847 at Faridpur *East Bengal).

  2. It was the protest of the peasants against the zamindars, govt. officials and British indigoplanters.

Taayyuni Movement

  1. Started by Karmat Ali Jaunpuri.

  2. It rejected introduction of new things in Islam.

Pagal Panthis Movement

  1. Founded by Karam Shah in Bengal.

  2. It was a semi-religious sect.

  3. It took up the cause of the tenants against the oppressions of the zamidars.

Muslim Political & Nationalistic Organisations
Arhar Movement

  1. Started by the youn muslim nationalists Md. Ali, Hakim Ajmal Khan, Mazhar-ul-Haq, Zafar Ali Khan in 1890 in Punjab.
  2. It was against loyalist politics of Aligarh school and was inspired by the modern idea of self-government.

Azad Muslim Conference

  1. Founded by Allah Bux in 1940.
  2. Supported by the nationalist muslims within the Congress, Jamayatal-ulema, Ahrar Party etc.
  3. It opposed the claim of Pakistan.

Krishak Praja Party

  1. Founded by Fazlul Haq in Bengal in 1929.
  2. It was a muslim peasntry party.

Khudai Khidmatgar

  1. Also known as Red Shirt Movement.
  2. Started by Khan Abdul Gaffar Khan in 1030 in North-West frontier province.
  3. It was nationalist pro-congress organisation.
  4. In Baluchistan the nationlist muslims were organised into Watan Party.
  5. It started no-rent campaign during civil-disbedience Movement on Gandhian methodology.

Khilafat Movement

  1. Started in 1919 by Hakim Ajmal Khan, Hasrat Mohani, the Ali brothers and Maulana Azad.
  2. Initially it was religious in spirit but later on assumed political complexion and lined with Indian Freedom Struggle.A protest movement against the humilation of the calipha.

Watan Party

  1. Founded in Baluchistan by Nationalist Muslims.
  2. It’s attitude was pro-congress.

Harijan Upliftment-Organisations & Movements Satya Shodhak Samaj

Started by Jyotibha Govindrao Phule in 1875. It aimed at fighting against Brahminism and its ideology. It criticized idolatry, and priesthood, theory of karma, rebirth and heaven. Jotiba Phule was born in a Shudra Mali family in Poona in 1827. Rejected the sacred Hindu texts and scriptures. His main ideas on economics of the agrarian classes was published in the pamphlet, Isara in 1885. Propagated his ideas through a journal Deen Bandhu in Marathi, his book Gulamgiri (slavery) and Setakaryancha Asuda (the whip-cord of the peasantry). Opposed Indian National Congress, for it failed to take up peasant problems. After the death of Jyotibha Phule Satya Sahodhak was revived by Chhatrapati Shahu Maharaj of Kolhapur, Phule was the first Indian to start a school for untouchables in 1854. He started a girl school in Poona with his wife in 1851. It was anti-Brahmin organisation.


The founders were T.N. Nair, P. Tyagaraya Chetti and C. Natesa Mudaliar. Founded in 1916 in Madras. the real name was Indian Liberal Federation. The initial demand of the Leaders was the reservation seats in the Provincial Legislative Council. Later on, the demand was extended to include concessions in education, public appointments and nomination to local boards. Social base was non-brahmin leading zamindars and the urban business groups. It served the political interests of feudal and commercial classes. Vellals (Tamil) Reddis(Telegu) and Kammas (Telugu) constituted the movement.

Self Respect Movement

It was started by E.V. Ramaswami Neicker who was popularly known as Periyar. He advocated the burning of Manu Dharma Shastras and Ramayana. Abandoned Hindu mythology. Vehemently supported the Harijans and became a hero of satyagraha at Vaikom, Kerala started his paper, Kudi Arasu in 1925 & turned into a radical social reformer attacked religion and the supremacy of the Brahmins and the caste system and emphasized on the issue of widow marriage and birth control. Self respect League was merged with Party in 1944 to from Dravida Kazhagam.

Sri Narayan Dharma Paripalana Yogan

Founded in 1902 in Kerala. Founder was Nanu Asan popularly known as Narayan Guru. Aimed at assertion of rights for Ezhawas. Temple - entry was the main programme. His gospel was-one caste, one religion, one god.

All India Depressed Classes Federation Founded

by Dr. Ambedkar in 1920 for the Maharas of Maharashtra. Bahiskrit Bharat Movement was also started by him.

Harijan Sevak Sangh

Founded by Gandhi in 1932. He gave the untouchables the name Harijan. He started a magazine (1933). It’s aim was to work for their upliftment.

Vaikom Satyagraha (Kerala, 1924-25)

It was led by T.K. Madhavan, K. Kellapan & Keshava Menon. It was the first organized temple entry movement of the depressed classed. They asserted along Gandhian lines lines the right of Ezhavas & other untouchable to use the road near Travancoretemple.

Mahad Satyagraha (Maharashtra 1927)

It was led by Ambedkar. Ambedkar demanded the ight of the Maharas to use tanks and temples & abolition of Mahar’s traditional service to village chiefs.

Efforts for Upliftment of Women

  1. Infanticide was abolished by Bengal Regulation Act, 1795.
  2. Infanticide was abolished by Wellesely in 1802.
  3. Sati was abolished in 1829 by the efforts of Raja Ram Mohan Roy.
  4. Vidyasagar opened a school for women and made efforts in passing the Hindu Widow Remarriage Act 1856.
  5. Virsalingam emphasized on the education for women
    • He also laid emphasis on the right of widow to remarry.
    • He established Rajah Mundry Social Reform Association in 1878.
    • He published a journal Vivek Vardhani.
  6. Widow Marriage Association was established in 1861 by Ranade and Vishnu Shastri Pandit.
  7. Behramji Malabari made efforts in passing ofthe Age of Consent Act in 1891. By this act the age of a girl for marriage was increased from 10 to 12 years.
  8. Ramabai worked for the education and rights of the women.
    • She founded Arya Mahila Samaj.
    • She made first attempt to educate widow and for this purpose established Sharda Sadan at Bombay.
  9. Dhondo Keshav Karve made efforts for the education of women and widow remarriage.
    • Established first Indian Women’s University in 1916.
  10. Mutthu Lakshmi Reddi opposed Devdasi System.
    • Made efforts in passign the Act for Traffic in minor in 1916.
  11. Rai Sahib Harbilas Sharda moved a bill for increasing the age for marriage.
    • a. In 1929 sharda Act was passed.
    • b. The age of marriage for a boy increased to 18 years and a girl 14 years by this Act.
  12. Lady Hardinge Medical College was established in 1916.
  13. All India Muslim Ladies Conference held in1914.
  14. Sartadevi Chaudharani founded Bharat Stri Mahamandal at Allahabad in 1910.
    • It was the first permanent association for the women.
  15. John Filliot Drink Water Bethune founded Bethune School in 1849.
  16. An Irish, Theopist, Dorothy Raja Dasa established the Indian Women’s Association in 1915 under the presidentship to Anie Besant.
    • Started a Journal stri Dharma.
  17. By the efforts of Margaret Cousin, All IndiaWomen’s conference held at Puna in 1927. She started a Journal Roshni.
  18. All India Muslim Ladies Conference held in 1924.

Social Legislations in Moderns India

1795 Abollitionof infanticide by Bengal Regulation
1802 Abolition of infanticide by Lord Wellesly.
1811 Abolition of slavery under Regulation X by Bengal
1829 Abolition of sati by Lord William Bentick (under Regulation XVII).
Pioneering efforts in this direction were made by Raja Ram Mohan Roy.
1831-37 Abolition of Thugi by William Bentick operation by William Sleeman
Abolition of slavery under Regulation of III
1843 Abolition of slavery by Lord Ellenborough
1856 Approval of widow remarriage by Hndu Widow’s Remarriage
Act by the efforts of Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar
1872 Banning of child marriage, polygamy & approval of intercaste
marriage & widow remarriage by Native marriage Act.
1891 Age of marriage for girls was increased to 12 years by Age of
Consent Act by the efforts of Behramji Malabari.
1929 The age of marriage was increased to 18 years in the case of Boy’s and
14 years in the case of girl’s by Child Marriage Restraint Act commonly
known as Sharda Act.
Banning of child marriage by Infant Prevention Act.
1937 Right to property given to women.

Rise & development of Sikhism

  • Nanak’s disciples calledthemselves, denved from the sanskrit word Sisya
    (desciple) or path Sikha (instruction).
Nanak (1469-1539)
  • Founder of Sikhism
  • Born at Talwandi
  • Mystic of Nirguna school
  • Appointed Lehans who succeeded him as Guru Angad
  • Invented new script Gurumukhi
  • Also known as Lehana.
  • Divided the sikh spiritual empire into 22 Parishes or Manjis or Gadiyan.
  • Started collecting and compling Nanak’s hymns
  • Introduced features which served to
  • maintain the cohesion of the community
  • Initiated Langer - Free kitchen maintained by voluntary offerings.
  • Introduced many inovationwhich later helped in emergence of Sikh
  • Church.
  • Had a tank dug at the site granted to his
(1574-1851) wife by Akbar
  • Founded Amritsar
  • During his period succession became hereditary.
  • Founded Harmandir at Amritsar (Golden temple
  • Composed Gurugranth Sahib (Adigranth)
  • Prosecuted byJehangir on the pretext of Khusrav Rebellion
  • Organised collection of spiritual tribute by agents called Mazands
Hargovind (1606-1645)
  • Introduce Militarncy
  • Enlisted a body of Troops
  • Built Akal Takht (Throne of Almighty)
  • Fortified Amritsar
  • Was taken to Delhi, mprisoned at Gwalior put and released in 1611.
  • Defeated the imperial forces at Songrama in 1628.
  • Shifted headquarter to Kiratpur
  • Har Rai Blessed Dara Shikoh
  • Sent his son Ram Raj to Delhi to represent him when
    Aurangzeb called upon him
Har Kisan
  • Settled at Anandpur
  • Prosecuted by Aurangzeb
  • accompanied the Mughal in Assam
  • resisted deligions intolerance of Aurangzeb
    by encouraging brahmanas of Kashmir
Govind Singh (1675-1708)
  • Started Khalsa (1659)
  • Introduced two titles Singh and Kaur
  • Introduced Panj Piyare (Five beloved ones)
  • Put stress on self reliance
  • Introduced Panj Kakke (Fivek’s) - Kesa, Kancha, Kara, Kirpan, Kangha
  • Called “Sachha Badshah”
  • Compiled “Deswan Padshah ka Granth”
  • Introduced a new rite “Pahul”
  • Suppressed organisation of the Masands who had become corrupt
  • Said about Khalsa-Khalsa is the Guru and Guru is me Khalsa
  • Defeated by the hill chiets in which he lost two sons-Ajit Singh and Juhar Singh
  • Defeated Wazir Khan, governor of Sirhind
  • Served Mughals under Bahadur Shah to Deccan
  • Killed by a Pathan at Nanded on the Godavari river.
  • Introduced Panj Piyare (Five beloved ones)
Banda Bahadur
  • Real Name Lachman Das
  • Abolished Zamindari
  • Defeated Wazir Khan and sacked Sirhind
  • Established himself at hill fort of Lohgarh
  • Captured by Adus Samad Khan governor of Lahore and
    put to death in Delhi in 1716 by Farrukhsiyar
  • Kapur Singh organised independent James intome army called Dal Khalsa
    under Jassa Singh
  • Sikhs strucked first coinin1764 thereby signifying their sovereign power.

Sikh Reforms - Organisations & Movements Nirankari Movement

  1. Baba Dayal Das was the first among the reformers in Sikh religion

Namdhari Movement

Popularly known as Kuka Movement because of the followes resorting to shricks (Kukan) while in ecstasy. Started by Bhagat Jawahar Mal and Baba Balak Singh.

Singh Sabha Movement

  1. Started in 1873 in Amritsar
  2. Aimed at social and religious reform through the spread of education.
  3. Khalsa College was founded at Amritsar in1892.

Akali Movement

  1. Started by the sikh reformers to purify their religious places y removal of the evil social practices.
  2. Akali reformers had to take control of the important shrines the Golden Temple and Akal Takht because of the misuse of temple premises by anti social corrupt elements and the ban on the entry of low caste people in the holy shrines.
  3. Resulted in the passing of the All-India Sikhs Gurudwara Act in 1925.

Social & Political Organisations Servants of India Society

  1. Founded by Gopal Krishna Gokhle in 1905.
  2. Started many welfare programmes.
  3. Aimed at training the National missionaries for the free service of India.

Social Service League

  1. Founded by Narayan Malhar Joshi in Bombay.
  2. Secured the masses better & reasonable conditions of life and work.

Seve Samiti

  1. Founded by Hirday Nath Kunzru in 1914 at Allahabad.
  2. The main aim was promotion of education, sanitation and cleanliness.

Parasi Reforms - Organisation & Movement
Rehnumai Mazadayasan Sabha

  1. Started by Furdonji, Dadabhai Naoroji and S.S. Bangalee in 1859.
  2. It stood for the modernisation of Parsi religion and social customs.
  3. It launched a struggle for the introduction and spread of education among women, and grant of a legal status to them.
  4. Also struggled for uniform laws of inheritance and marriage for the Parsi community.

Individual Efforts in the Development of Education

1 Calcutta Madarasa 1781 By Warren Hastings
2 Asiatic Society of Bengal 1784 By William Jones
3 Sanskrit College at Banaras 1791 By Jonathan Duncan
4 Fort William College at Calcutta to train Civil Servants William carey as teacher of Sanskrit & Bengali.
  1800 By Lord Wellesely
5 Hindu College at Calcutta 1817 By rajaram Mohan Roy, David Hare (Watch Maker) & Edward Hyde East (Chief Justice, Supreme Court)
  • School Book Society
    founded in 1817
by David Hare, Louis Derozio & H.H. Wilson
  • School at Suripara at
    Calcutta founded
by Raja Ram Mohan Roy for promoting  english education
6 Anglo-Hindu School 1822 By Rajaram Mohan Roy
7 Vedanta College 1825 By Rajaram Mohan Roy
8 Elphinston College at Bombay 1827 By Montstuart Eliphinston
9 School at Calcutta 1830 By Alexander duff
  Moh. Anglo-Orien- tal College at Aligarh 1875 By Saiyed Ahmed Khan
11. A. Bethune School 1849 By John Elliot Drinkwater Bethune
B.To Promote
female education
By Dalhausie
  C. He was President of Council of Education
12 Dayanand Anglo-Vedic College at Lahore 1986
13 Central Hindu School at Banaras 1898 By Madan Mohan Malviya
14 Banaras Hindu University 1916 By Gandhi
15 A Wardha Scheme 1937 By Gandhi
B Gandhi proposed this idea in Harijan
C Committee for this purpose headed by Zakir Hussain

Emphasized on free & compulsory education till 7 years., vocational education, mother tongue and manual productive work

16 Asiatic Society
of Bengal
1784 By Willaim Jones
17 Charles Wilkin,
a merchant in E.I.C. translated Bhagwat Gita
18 Charles Wilkin, translated Hitopadesh 1787  
19 William Jones, translated Shakuntala, Gita Govinda and Govinda and Manusamhita
20 Works on Sanskrit grammer and the Vedas by enry Thomas Colebrook
21 Horace Hayman Wilson translated Meghduta
22 James Princep, deciphered Ashokan Edicts 1837