Modern Indian History
Political, Social & Religious Reforms
Organization & Movement
Hindu Reforms-Organisations & Movements Arya Samaj
- Founded by Swami Dayanand Saraswati in 1875.
- Important works of Dayanand are Satyartha Prakash, Veda Bhasya, Veda
- Swami Dayanand rejected Western idea and emphasized on reviving the
ancient of the Aryans.
- His real name was Mulshankar and he was born in a Brahmin family.
- First Arya Samaj unit was organised at Bombay.
- Later on the headqurters was established at Lahore.
- Condemned idol worship. Disregarded the authority of the later Hindu
sriptures like the Puranas. Launched a frontal attack on the numerous abuses
like idolatry, polytheism, belief in magic, charms, animal sacrifices.
- Dayanand’s slogan of ‘Back to the ‘Vdas’ was a call for revival of vedic
learning and vedic purity of religion and not revival of vedic times.
Produced leaders of the eminence like Lala Hans Raj,
Pandit Guru Dutt and Lala Lajpat Rai
- Founded by Raja Ram Mohan Rao in 1828.
- Condemned idolatry, caste system and religious rituals.
- Started a campaign for the abolition of sati, condemned polygamy and concubinange.
- Raja Ram Mohan Roy in the The Precepts of Jesus published in 1820, tried to
separate moral and philosophical message of the new testament.
- Established Vedant College in 1825.
- He was the initiator of public agitation on political questions in the
- Devendranath Tagore Brahmo Samaj in 1842.
- He condemned idol worship, discouraged pilgrimages, ceremonials and
penances-among the Brahmos.
- Keshab Chandra Sen joined the Brahmo Samaj in 1858.
- Raja Ram Mohan Roy published his first philosophical work. Tuhbatul
Muwahhiddin in 1805.
- He provided enthuisastic support to David Hare who, along with many other
Indians founded the famous Hindu College in 1817.
- First split in Brahmo Samaj in 1867.
- Brahmo Samaj of India led by Keshab Chandra Sen.
- Adi Brahmo Samaj led by Devendranath Tagore. 12. Second split in Brahmo Samaj of India in 1878.
- Church of the New Dispensation
- Sadharan Brahmo was Samaj led by younger group.
- Raja Ram Mohan Roy established Atmiya Sabha in 1815 to fight against social
evils in Hinduism and also to propagate monotheism.
- Raja Ram Mohan Roy also gave opinion on Permanent Settlement
- Inaugrated by Swami Vivekanand (originally Narendra Dutta) in 1896 with its
headquarter at Belur (near Calcutta).
- Ramkrishna Math was founded in 1997 as a registered religious trust by
- Spread message of Vedanta and founded vedanta society in U.S.A.
- Carried on philanthropic and charitable works.
- Opposed untouchability and caste system.
- Condemned ‘touch me not’ attitude of Hindus on religious matters.
- Attended Parliament of Religion at Chicago (1893) where he emphasised on
need for a healthy balance between spiritualism and materiaslism.
- Him I call a Mahatma whose heart bleeds for the poor, othrwise he is
- So long as millions live in hunger and ignorance, I hold every
man as a traitor who while educated at their expense, pays not the least
head to them.
- Subhash Chandra Bose wrote - So far as Bengal is concerned
Vivekananda may be regarded as the spiritual father of modern
- Ramakrishna Paramhans used to say - All different religious views
are but different ways leading to the same goal.
- Ram Krishna Paramhansa Guru of Vivekananda was a priest at Dakshineshwar
temple near Calcutta.
- Founded by H.P. Blavatasky in the USA in 1875.
- Later the US Army colonel M.S. Olcott joined it.
- Headquarters shifted to India at Adya in 1882.
- The society accepted the Hindu belief in re-incarnation Karma and drew
inspiration from the philosophy of the upanishads and Samkhya, Yoga and Vedanta school of thought to promote international brotherhood.
- Mrs. Annie Besant joined it in 1893 & became the President of this society in
She laid the foundation of the Central Hindu College is Banaras in 1898 where
both the Hindu religion & western scientific were taught, which later on rose into Benaras Hindu University (1916).
Formed by Balakrishna Jayakar in 1850 in Maharashtra.
Young Bengal Movement
Initiated by an Anglo-Indian teacher of the Hindu College, Henry Vivian Derozio.
Derozio was a free thinker & a rationalist, who helped to promote a radical
and critical outlook among his students.
He was dismissed from the Hindu College in 1831 because of his radical views.
Derozio is called first nationalist poet of modern India.
Established by Devendranath Tagore in 1839 to carry on Rammohan’s ideals
independent of the Brahmo Samaj.
A Tattvabodhini Press was established in 1843.
Tattvabodhini Patrika, a journal of the organisation was started for the
propagation of ideas.
Established in 1849.
Founder was Dadoba Pandurang Tarkhadkar.
The first reform organisation of 19th century Maharashtra.
Rajahmundary Social Reform Association
Founded by Viresalingam Pantulu in 1878.
Emphasized on promotion of widow remarriage.
Bombay Social Reform Association
Founded by M.G. Ranade in 1903.
Widow Marriage Association
Foundation by Vishnu Shastri Pandit & M.G. Ranade in 1861.
Founder by Radha Kant Deb in 1830.
Stood for socio-religious status quo.
Campaigned agaisnt abolition of Sati.
Founded by Radha Kant Deb.
Founder under the influence of Keshav Chandra Sen’s visit to Madras.
Truned into Brahmo Samaj of Southern India in 1871 by Sridhalu naidu.
Muslim Reforms-Organisations & Movements Wahabi Movement
Started in Indian in 1821 under the leadership of Syed Ahmed of Raibaraily
who was influenced by the teaching of the DelhiSaint Shah Walliullah.
The main centre of this movement was at Patna.
Aimed at refromation of religious life and restoration of
political power of the Muslim Community.
It was a kind of holy war.
Syed Ahmed was killed in the Battle of Balacot in 1831.
Suppressed by the British in 1870’s.
Ahmedia Movement / Quadiani Movement
Started in around 1899 at a town Quadiyan under the
leadership of Mirza Ghulam Ahmed of Quadim (Gurudaspur, Punjab).
Aimed of restoration of the free and unpolluted faith of
Islam to the followers of the prophet.
Started by Sayyaid Ahmed Khan in 1860’s.
Based on the liberal interpretation of the Koran.
It aimed at spreading western and scientific education among
the Muslim masses.
Foundation of Scientific society in 1864 to introduce the
western sciences through urdu translation.
Publishing of urdu journal Tahzib-Al-Akhlaq in 1870.
Establishment of Aligarh Anglo-Mohammadan Oriental College
Muhamadan Anglo-Oriental Education Conference was started in
1866 for promoting western education among muslims.
S.A. Khan was in judicial service of the company.
1878 he became a member of imperial Legislative Council.
Work in 1860- The Loyal Muhammadans of India.
Was given title of Knighthood in 1888.
Opposed Ilbert Bill and said - Hindus and Muslims are two
eyes of India.
Founded Indian United Patriotic Association to counter
Against the Indian National Congress withRaja Shiv Prasad of
Founded Muhammadan Anglo-Oriental Defence Association in
Persons associated with Aligarh Movementassociated with him
- Altaf Hussain Hali,Maulavi Nazir Ahmed, Maulavi Shibh Numani.
Farangi Mahal Movement
- Famous traditional school at Farangi Mahal in
It was anti-British movement started by Md.
Qasim Nanawatawi and Rashid Ahmed Gangohi
in 1867 at Deoband.
Aimed at upliftment of muslims through
religious education and resuscitate classical
Welcomed the formation of Indian National
Congress in 1885.
Deoband Ulema issued Fatwa against S.A.
Started by Allam Mashirigi in 1931.
It was based on religious ideology of early Islam.
It was popular in Punjab, Sind etc.
Movement of Titu Mir
Started by Mir Nitha Ali / Ttu Mir, a desciple of
Syed Ahmed of Baraily in Bengal in 1820’s.
It was independent off shoot of Wahabis.
It was against the customs and beliefs borrowed
from popular Hinduism.
It came in conflict withHindu landlords and
British Indigo planters and eventually with
Started by Hazi Shariatuitah in 1847 at
Faridpur *East Bengal).
It was the protest of the peasants against the zamindars, govt. officials and British indigoplanters.
Started by Karmat Ali Jaunpuri.
It rejected introduction of new things in Islam.
Pagal Panthis Movement
Founded by Karam Shah in Bengal.
It was a semi-religious sect.
It took up the cause of the tenants against the
oppressions of the zamidars.
Muslim Political & Nationalistic Organisations
- Started by the youn muslim nationalists Md. Ali, Hakim Ajmal Khan,
Mazhar-ul-Haq, Zafar Ali Khan in 1890 in Punjab.
- It was against loyalist politics of Aligarh school and was inspired by the
modern idea of self-government.
Azad Muslim Conference
- Founded by Allah Bux in 1940.
- Supported by the nationalist muslims within the Congress, Jamayatal-ulema,
Ahrar Party etc.
- It opposed the claim of Pakistan.
Krishak Praja Party
- Founded by Fazlul Haq in Bengal in 1929.
- It was a muslim peasntry party.
- Also known as Red Shirt Movement.
- Started by Khan Abdul Gaffar Khan in 1030 in North-West frontier province.
- It was nationalist pro-congress organisation.
- In Baluchistan the nationlist muslims were organised into Watan Party.
- It started no-rent campaign during civil-disbedience Movement on Gandhian
- Started in 1919 by Hakim Ajmal Khan, Hasrat Mohani, the Ali brothers and
- Initially it was religious in spirit but later on assumed political
complexion and lined with Indian Freedom Struggle.A protest movement against the humilation of the calipha.
- Founded in Baluchistan by Nationalist Muslims.
- It’s attitude was pro-congress.
Harijan Upliftment-Organisations & Movements Satya Shodhak Samaj
Started by Jyotibha Govindrao Phule in 1875. It aimed at fighting against
Brahminism and its ideology. It criticized idolatry, and priesthood, theory of
karma, rebirth and heaven. Jotiba Phule was born in a Shudra Mali family in
Poona in 1827. Rejected the sacred Hindu texts and scriptures. His main ideas on
economics of the agrarian classes was published in the pamphlet, Isara in 1885.
Propagated his ideas through a journal Deen Bandhu in Marathi, his book
Gulamgiri (slavery) and Setakaryancha Asuda (the whip-cord of the peasantry).
Opposed Indian National Congress, for it failed to take up peasant problems.
After the death of Jyotibha Phule Satya Sahodhak was revived by Chhatrapati
Shahu Maharaj of Kolhapur, Phule was the first Indian to start a school for
untouchables in 1854. He started a girl school in Poona with his wife in 1851.
It was anti-Brahmin organisation.
The founders were T.N. Nair, P. Tyagaraya Chetti and C. Natesa Mudaliar. Founded
in 1916 in Madras. the real name was Indian Liberal Federation. The initial
demand of the Leaders was the reservation seats in the Provincial
Legislative Council. Later on, the demand was extended to include concessions in
education, public appointments and nomination to local boards. Social base was
non-brahmin leading zamindars and the urban business groups. It served the
political interests of feudal and commercial classes. Vellals (Tamil) Reddis(Telegu)
and Kammas (Telugu) constituted the movement.
Self Respect Movement
It was started by E.V. Ramaswami Neicker who was popularly known as Periyar. He
advocated the burning of Manu Dharma Shastras and Ramayana. Abandoned Hindu
mythology. Vehemently supported the Harijans and became a hero of satyagraha at
Vaikom, Kerala started his paper, Kudi Arasu in 1925 & turned into a radical
social reformer attacked religion and the supremacy of the Brahmins and the
caste system and emphasized on the issue of widow marriage and birth control.
Self respect League was merged with Party in 1944 to from Dravida
Sri Narayan Dharma Paripalana Yogan
Founded in 1902 in Kerala. Founder was Nanu Asan popularly known as Narayan
Guru. Aimed at assertion of rights for Ezhawas. Temple - entry was the main
programme. His gospel was-one caste, one religion, one god.
All India Depressed Classes Federation Founded
by Dr. Ambedkar in 1920 for the Maharas of Maharashtra. Bahiskrit Bharat
Movement was also started by him.
Harijan Sevak Sangh
Founded by Gandhi in 1932. He gave the untouchables the name
Harijan. He started a magazine (1933). It’s aim was to work for their upliftment.
Vaikom Satyagraha (Kerala, 1924-25)
It was led by T.K. Madhavan, K. Kellapan & Keshava Menon. It
was the first organized temple entry movement of the depressed classed. They
asserted along Gandhian lines lines the right of Ezhavas & other untouchable to
use the road near Travancoretemple.
Mahad Satyagraha (Maharashtra 1927)
It was led by Ambedkar. Ambedkar demanded the ight of
the Maharas to use tanks and temples & abolition of Mahar’s traditional service
to village chiefs.
Efforts for Upliftment of Women
- Infanticide was abolished by Bengal Regulation Act, 1795.
- Infanticide was abolished by Wellesely in 1802.
- Sati was abolished in 1829 by the efforts of Raja Ram Mohan Roy.
- Vidyasagar opened a school for women and made efforts in passing the
Hindu Widow Remarriage Act 1856.
- Virsalingam emphasized on the education for women
- He also laid emphasis on the right of widow to remarry.
- He established Rajah Mundry Social Reform Association in 1878.
- He published a journal Vivek Vardhani.
- Widow Marriage Association was established in 1861 by Ranade and Vishnu
- Behramji Malabari made efforts in passing ofthe Age of Consent Act
in 1891. By this act the age of a girl for marriage was increased from 10 to
- Ramabai worked for the education and rights of the women.
- She founded Arya Mahila Samaj.
- She made first attempt to educate widow and for this purpose
established Sharda Sadan at Bombay.
- Dhondo Keshav Karve made efforts for the education of women and widow
- Established first Indian Women’s University in 1916.
- Mutthu Lakshmi Reddi opposed Devdasi System.
- Made efforts in passign the Act for Traffic in minor in 1916.
- Rai Sahib Harbilas Sharda moved a bill for increasing the age for
- a. In 1929 sharda Act was passed.
- b. The age of marriage for a boy increased to 18 years and a girl 14
years by this Act.
- Lady Hardinge Medical College was established in 1916.
- All India Muslim Ladies Conference held in1914.
- Sartadevi Chaudharani founded Bharat Stri Mahamandal at Allahabad in
- It was the first permanent association for the women.
- John Filliot Drink Water Bethune founded Bethune School in 1849.
- An Irish, Theopist, Dorothy Raja Dasa established the Indian
Women’s Association in 1915 under the presidentship to Anie Besant.
- Started a Journal stri Dharma.
- By the efforts of Margaret Cousin, All IndiaWomen’s conference held at
Puna in 1927. She started a Journal Roshni.
- All India Muslim Ladies Conference held in 1924.
Social Legislations in Moderns India
||Abollitionof infanticide by Bengal Regulation
||Abolition of infanticide by Lord Wellesly.
||Abolition of slavery under Regulation X by Bengal
||Abolition of sati by Lord William Bentick (under Regulation XVII).
Pioneering efforts in this direction were made by Raja Ram Mohan Roy.
||Abolition of Thugi by William Bentick operation by William Sleeman
|Abolition of slavery under Regulation of III
||Abolition of slavery by Lord Ellenborough
||Approval of widow remarriage by Hndu Widow’s Remarriage
Act by the efforts of Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar
||Banning of child marriage, polygamy & approval of intercaste
marriage & widow remarriage by Native marriage Act.
||Age of marriage for girls was increased to 12 years by Age of
Consent Act by the efforts of Behramji Malabari.
||The age of marriage was increased to 18 years in the case of Boy’s
14 years in the case of girl’s by Child Marriage Restraint Act commonly
known as Sharda Act.
|Banning of child marriage by Infant Prevention Act.
||Right to property given to women.
Rise & development of Sikhism
- Nanak’s disciples calledthemselves, denved from the sanskrit
(desciple) or path Sikha (instruction).
- Founder of Sikhism
- Born at Talwandi
- Mystic of Nirguna school
- Appointed Lehans who succeeded him as Guru Angad
- Invented new script Gurumukhi
- Also known as Lehana.
- Divided the sikh spiritual empire into 22 Parishes or Manjis or
- Started collecting and compling Nanak’s hymns
- Introduced features which served to
- maintain the cohesion of the community
- Initiated Langer - Free kitchen maintained by voluntary
- Introduced many inovationwhich later helped in emergence of Sikh
- Had a tank dug at the site granted to his
||wife by Akbar
- Founded Amritsar
- During his period succession became hereditary.
- Founded Harmandir at Amritsar (Golden temple
- Composed Gurugranth Sahib (Adigranth)
- Prosecuted byJehangir on the pretext of Khusrav Rebellion
- Organised collection of spiritual tribute by agents called
- Introduce Militarncy
- Enlisted a body of Troops
- Built Akal Takht (Throne of Almighty)
- Fortified Amritsar
- Was taken to Delhi, mprisoned at Gwalior put and released in
- Defeated the imperial forces at Songrama in 1628.
- Shifted headquarter to Kiratpur
- Har Rai Blessed Dara Shikoh
- Sent his son Ram Raj to Delhi to represent him when
Aurangzeb called upon him
- accompanied the Mughal in Assam
- resisted deligions intolerance of Aurangzeb
by encouraging brahmanas of Kashmir
|Govind Singh (1675-1708)
- Started Khalsa (1659)
- Introduced two titles Singh and Kaur
- Introduced Panj Piyare (Five beloved ones)
- Put stress on self reliance
- Introduced Panj Kakke (Fivek’s) - Kesa, Kancha, Kara, Kirpan,
- Called “Sachha Badshah”
- Compiled “Deswan Padshah ka Granth”
- Introduced a new rite “Pahul”
- Suppressed organisation of the Masands who had become corrupt
- Said about Khalsa-Khalsa is the Guru and Guru is me Khalsa
- Defeated by the hill chiets in which he lost two sons-Ajit Singh
and Juhar Singh
- Defeated Wazir Khan, governor of Sirhind
- Served Mughals under Bahadur Shah to Deccan
- Killed by a Pathan at Nanded on the Godavari river.
- Introduced Panj Piyare (Five beloved ones)
- Real Name Lachman Das
- Abolished Zamindari
- Defeated Wazir Khan and sacked Sirhind
- Established himself at hill fort of Lohgarh
- Captured by Adus Samad Khan governor of Lahore and
put to death in Delhi in 1716 by Farrukhsiyar
- Kapur Singh organised independent James intome army called Dal
under Jassa Singh
- Sikhs strucked first coinin1764 thereby signifying their
Sikh Reforms - Organisations & Movements Nirankari Movement
- Baba Dayal Das was the first among the reformers in Sikh religion
Popularly known as Kuka Movement because of the followes resorting to shricks
(Kukan) while in ecstasy. Started by Bhagat Jawahar Mal and Baba Balak Singh.
Singh Sabha Movement
- Started in 1873 in Amritsar
- Aimed at social and religious reform through the spread of education.
- Khalsa College was founded at Amritsar in1892.
- Started by the sikh reformers to purify their religious places y
removal of the evil social practices.
- Akali reformers had to take control of the important shrines the Golden
Temple and Akal Takht because of the misuse of temple premises by anti
social corrupt elements and the ban on the entry of low caste people in the
- Resulted in the passing of the All-India Sikhs Gurudwara Act in 1925.
Social & Political Organisations Servants of India Society
- Founded by Gopal Krishna Gokhle in 1905.
- Started many welfare programmes.
- Aimed at training the National missionaries for the free service
Social Service League
- Founded by Narayan Malhar Joshi in Bombay.
- Secured the masses better & reasonable conditions of life and work.
- Founded by Hirday Nath Kunzru in 1914 at
- The main aim was promotion of education, sanitation and cleanliness.
Parasi Reforms - Organisation & Movement
Rehnumai Mazadayasan Sabha
- Started by Furdonji, Dadabhai Naoroji and S.S.
Bangalee in 1859.
- It stood for the modernisation of Parsi religion
and social customs.
- It launched a struggle for the introduction and
spread of education among women, and grant
of a legal status to them.
- Also struggled for uniform laws of inheritance and marriage for the Parsi community.
Individual Efforts in the Development of Education
||By Warren Hastings
||Asiatic Society of Bengal
||By William Jones
||Sanskrit College at Banaras
||By Jonathan Duncan
||Fort William College at Calcutta to train Civil Servants
William carey as teacher of Sanskrit & Bengali.
||By Lord Wellesely
||Hindu College at Calcutta
||By rajaram Mohan Roy, David Hare (Watch
Maker) & Edward Hyde East (Chief Justice, Supreme Court)
- School Book Society
founded in 1817
|by David Hare, Louis
Derozio & H.H. Wilson
- School at Suripara at
|by Raja Ram Mohan Roy for
promoting english education
||By Rajaram Mohan Roy
||By Rajaram Mohan Roy
||Elphinston College at Bombay
||By Montstuart Eliphinston
||School at Calcutta
||By Alexander duff
||Moh. Anglo-Orien- tal College at Aligarh
||By Saiyed Ahmed Khan
||A. Bethune School
||By John Elliot Drinkwater Bethune
||C. He was President of Council of Education
||Dayanand Anglo-Vedic College at Lahore 1986
||Central Hindu School at Banaras
||By Madan Mohan Malviya
||Banaras Hindu University
||Gandhi proposed this idea in Harijan
||Committee for this purpose headed by Zakir
Emphasized on free & compulsory education till 7
years., vocational education, mother tongue and manual productive work
||By Willaim Jones
a merchant in E.I.C. translated Bhagwat Gita
||Charles Wilkin, translated Hitopadesh
||William Jones, translated Shakuntala, Gita
Govinda and Govinda and Manusamhita
||Works on Sanskrit grammer and the Vedas by
enry Thomas Colebrook
||Horace Hayman Wilson translated Meghduta
||James Princep, deciphered Ashokan Edicts