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CAPF-AC (Assistant Commandant) Exam Study Material : History- Early Uprisings, Revolt of 1857 & British Policies after 1857

CAPF-AC (Assistant Commandant) Exam Study Material : History- Early Uprisings, Revolt of 1857 & British Policies after 1857

History : Early Uprisings, Revolt of 1857 & British Policies after 1857

Wahabi Movement

  • It emphasised on the belief that Allah would soon send a Messiah, who would eradicate the social, religious and political evils and would purify and glorify Islam. The main aim of the Wahabis in India was to convert ‘Dar-ul -Harb’ (non-Islamic territory) into `Dar-ul-Islam’ (Islamic territory).

  • The British government termed the Wahabis as traitors and rebels. But the main aim of the movement was to reform the Muslim society and rejuvenate it. For the same purpose the movement also laid stress on the revival of Islam.

  • Originally, the Wahabi movement was started in Arabia by Muhammad Ibn-Aba-e-Wahid. Being religious in content its main aim was to end tribalism and spread Islam. But the orthodox Muslims did not give it due importance and even opposed it.

  • Shah Wali Ullah was the first Muslim leader in India, who expressed concern over the miseries of Muslims. Afterwardhis movement was shaped as Wahabi movement by Shah Abdul Aziz and Saiyid Ahamd Raebarelvi.

  • Saiyid Ahmed called it a holy war and toured all important cities and places of India. He chose Sittana in the North-western Province as the centre of his activities and organised a strong network of branches found it from Dhaka to Peshawar. In India, its main centre was in Patna.

  • In 1831, after the death of Sayyid Ahmed ‘Raebarelvi’, Ali brothers of Patna, Vilayat Ali and Inayat Ali became the main leaders of the movement.After 1860, the British carried out extensive military operations against the Wahabis and destroyed their military outposts.

  • Armed resistance by the Wahabis had come into being only after the revolt of 1857. The movement was fully suppressed after 1870.

Kuka Movement

  • The chief inspiration for this movement came from Bhai Ram Singh (1824-1885) a disciple of Bhai Balak Singh who was a simple and devoted person. His father Jassa Singh was from a poor family belonging to the Ramgarhia misl. Bhai Ram Singh had served in the Sikh army before the first Anglo Sikh war.

  • The ill-treatment meted out to Maharani Jindan, Diwam Mulraj and Maharaja Dalip Singh turned him against the British. He stressed on the need for recitation of Chandi Path, Guruvani, Nam Jap and Asha-di-var running langars and worshipping of cow.

  • Bhai Ram Singh encouraged his followers to be self-dependent‘ He asked them not to admit their children in government schools, not to appear in courts of law, not to use foreign goods, railways or postal services. This way he was perhaps the first person to adopt the policy of non-cooperation against the British government.

  • He divided the area under his influence into 22 parts and appointed ‘Subedars’ and Naib-Subedar in them. He also constituted an independent spy system. He never used the roads built by the government.

  • Instead Bhai Ram Singh was deported to Burma by the Third Bengal Regulation of 1868, where he died in 1885 at the age of 61.

Revolt of 1857

  • Dalhousie’s annexation of Avadh on the ground of misrule in 1856. Dalhousie also announced in 1849 that the successors of Bahadur Shah II would have to leave the Red Fort. Canning announced in 1856 that the successors of Bahadur Shah would be known only as princes and not as kings.

  • Refusal of the British to pay foreign service allowance (batta) while fighting in remote regions such as Punjab or Sind. Religious objections of the high caste

  • Resentment of the conservative and orthodox elements against the social reforms and humanitarian measures introduced by the government.

  • Peasants Loss of their lands to the money-lenders due to the land and land revenue policies of the British, particularly the Ryotwari system, and their system of law and administration (which favoured the moneylenders at the cost of the peasants).

    केन्द्रीय सशस्त्र पुलिस बल (सहायक कमांडेंट) के लिये स्टडी किट

    Study Kit for Central Armed Police Forces(AC)

Causes of the Revolt

It was essentially because of the exploitative policies of the British that the feelings of unrest grew among the Indians which finally manifested in the form of a revolt in 1857. The greased cartridges only provided the much needed spark, which set the stage ablaze.

Political Cause

  • In 1852, an Inam Commission was established. Its objective was to take over the lands on which revenue was not being paid. More than 20,000 jagirs were confiscated during the period of Lord Dalhousie itself intensifying the mushrooming discontent.

  • The Indian princely states vehemently opposed the denial of the system of adoption by the British. Lord Dalhousie annexed several Indian states. States like Satara (1848), Jaitpur and Sambhalpur (1849), Baghat (1850), Udaipur (1852), Jhansi (1853) and Nagpur (1854) were merged with the British Empire by applying the dubious Doctrine of Lapse.

  • Nana Sahib was refused pension, as he was the adopted son of Peshwa Baji Rao II. Lucknow was annexed in 1856. on charges of maladministration and Jhansi was annexed owing to Doctrine of Lapse.

  • The government of the Company did not even leave the last Mughal Emperor, Bahadur Shah II. The Governor-General of India, Lord Ellenborough discontinued the practice of giving gifts to Bahadur Shah and struck his name off the coins.

  • In 1856, the annexation of Awadh created panic and disaffection. The state of Awadh had been loyal to the Company throughout. But despite that Awadh was annexed to the English state on the grounds of misrule and administrative irregularities.

केन्द्रीय सशस्त्र पुलिस बल (सहायक कमांडेंट) के लिये स्टडी किट

Study Kit for Central Armed Police Forces(AC)

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