CAPF-AC (Assistant Commandant) Exam Study Material :
History - Mughal Administration & Economy
History : Mughal Administration & Economy
Abul Fazl’s meticulously prepared Ain-i-Akbari provides a wealth of statistical
information which is supplemented by official documents like the Dasrur-ul
Amal-i Alamagiri, the madad-i maash and other revenue records, besides countless
Components of Administration
Seventy per cent of the Mughal officers were foreigners, mainly Iranis from
Persia and Turanis from Central Asia. They belonged to families that had
migrated to India with Humayun or had arrived after Akbar’s accession.
During the course of Akbar’s rule only twenty-one Hindus were recruited into the
ranks of the upper nobility. Of these, the overwhelming majority (seventeen)
were Rajputs. The other four included in this privileged circle were Birbal
Todar Mal, his son and another Khattri.
After the dismissal of Bairam Khan, he did away with the institution of the
all-powerful wazir, distributed the functions of that office among several
officers and often kept the post vacant.The diwan was responsible only for the
functioning of the finance ministry, while the mir bakshi was accountable for
the military department. The sadr us-sadur looked after ecclesiastical affairs,
while the mir saman was in-charge of the supply department.
Akbar abolished the post of all-powerful Wazir. He became the head of the
revenue department Also known as Diwan-i-ala. Diwan Responsible for all income
and expenditure and had control over Khalisa and jagir land. Mir Bakshi Headed
military department, nobility, information and intelligence agencies.
Mir Saman was Incharge of Imperial household and Karkhanas. Diwan-i-Bayutat
Maintained roads, government buildings etc. and worked under Mir Saman.
Diwan-i-Bayutat Maintained roads, government buildings etc. and worked under Mir
Saman. Sadr us Sadr Incharge of charitable and religious endowments Qazi id
Quzat Headed the Judiciary department Muhtasib Censor of Public Morals.
Wazir- Head of the revenue department
Mir Bakshi - Head of the military department
Barids- Intelligence Officers
Waqia navis- Reporters
Mir saman- In charge of imperial household
Qazi- Head of the judicial department
Sadr-us-Sudur: Head of the Ecclessiastical Department, hence regulated the
religious policy of the state; was also in charge of Public Authorities and
Other Officials: (i) Muhtasibs (enforced public morals), (ii) Waquia Navis (News
reports), (iii) Khufia Navis (Secret letterwriters), (iv) Harkarahs (spies and
Organization of the Government
Parganas and Sarkar continued as before. Chief officers
of the Sarkar were Fauzdar and Amalguzar. the former being in charge of law
and order and the later responsible for the assessment and collection of the
Mughal empire was divided into subas which was further
subdivided into sarkar. parganas and villages. However, it also had other
territorial units as ‘Khalisa’, (royal land), Jagirs (autonomous rajas) and
Inams (gifted lands, mainly waste lands). There were 15 territorial units (subas)
during Akbar’s reign, which later increased it) 20 under Aurangzeb’s reign.
Akbar divided the empire into 12 subas . These were
Bengal. Bihar. Allahbad. Awadh. Agra. Delhi. Lahore. Multan. Kabul. Ajmer.
Malwa. & Gujarat. A Subbahdar. diwan. bakshi. sadr, qazi. and a waqia- navis
were appointed each to of the provinces
1. Sipahsalar—The Head Executive(under Akbar and later he was
known Nizam or Subedar)
2. Diwan—Incharge of revenue department
3. Bakshi—Incharge of military dept.
Kotwal—Maintenance of law and order, trial of criminal
cases and price regulation.
Shiqdar—Administrative head combined in himself the
duties of ‘fauzdar and kotwal’
Amin, Qanungo—Revenue officials