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CAPF-AC (Assistant Commandant) Exam Study Material : History - Mughal Society, Culature & Religion

CAPF-AC (Assistant Commandant) Exam Study Material : History - Mughal Society, Culature & Religion

History : Mughal Society, Culature & Religion

Mughal Architecture

Babar

Though Babur is known to have commissioned the construction of several monuments, he was more fond of gardens.
Babur issued instructions that gardens and orchards be laid out in all large cities in his domains.

Humayun

  • Humayun laid the foundation of the city Din Panah at Delhi.
  • Humayun’s tomb is called the proto type of Taj Mahal. It has a double dome of marble, while the central dome is octagonal. It was built by his widow Haji Begum.
  • The garden and the gateway are to be found in all Mughal-style tombs.

Sher Shah

  • Sher- Shah probably complete’ the fort and also built the Qala-i-Kuhna mosque within its precincts, Also attributed to Sher Shah is the huge mausoleum of his father at Sasaram in Bihar.
  • Sher Shah constructed his own mausoleum at Sasaram, which was then the largest tomb in India.

Akbar

  • Building’s built by Akbar are Agra Fort (1565), Lahore Palace (1572), Fatehpur Sikri’, Buland Darwaza and Allahabad Fort (1583).
  • The architecture at Fatehpur Sikri is an excellent blending of Persian, Central Asian and various Indian (Bengal and Gujarat) styles . It is also known as Epic poem in red sandstone.
  • Indian tradition includes deep eaves, balconies and Kiosks. Central Asian Style is evident in the use of glazed blue tiles.
  • Two unusual buildings at Fatehpur Sikri are Panch Mahal & Diwan-i-Khas
  • The Panch Mahal has the plan of Buddhist Vihara.
  • The Jodhabai’s Palace, Diwan-i-Aam, Diwan-i-Khas are Indian in their plan.
  • Buland Darwaja (built after Gujarat victory), formed the main entrance to Fatehpur Sikri. It is built in the Iranian style of half dome portal.
  • Salim Chisti’s tomb (redone in Marble by Jahangir is the first Mughal building in Pure marble), palaces of Birbal, Anup Talao, Mariyam Mahal are also inside the Fatehpur Sikri.
  • He built the Jahangiri Mahal in Agra fort according to Hindu design based on Man Mandir.
  • Haroon Minor—Tower built by Akbar in memory of his elephant (Haroon).
  • He also began to build his own tomb at Sikandara which, was later completed by Jahangir.

    केन्द्रीय सशस्त्र पुलिस बल (सहायक कमांडेंट) के लिये स्टडी किट

    Study Kit for Central Armed Police Forces(AC)

Jahangir

  • Jahangir was a patron of painting rather than architecture.The most well known building of his reign was the mausoleoum he built for his father at Sikandara, near Agra, which is said to resemble the Parch Mahal at Fatehpur Sikri.
  • Jahangir’s buildings at Agra fort were later pulled down by Shah Jahan.We do know, however, that beneath the viewing balcony (jharoka) from which he gave darshan to the public, he had installed life-size marble statues of the defeated Rana of Mewar, Amar Singh and his son, Karan, much as Akbar had placed statues of the Rajput heroes Jaimal and Fatha outside Agra Palace.
  • Jahangir was immensely interested in gardens; the most famous of those associated with him being in Srinagar. His queen, Nur Jahan’s most well known architectural project is the white marble mausoleum she built near Agra for her father, Itimad-ud-daula. It is a magnificently carved monument, inlaid with semi-precious stones in marble, a technique known as pietra dura.
  • The style of architecture used by both Jahangir and Shahjahan is known as Indo Persian. Important features of this style are Curved lines, Bulbous dome, foliated arches vigorous use of marble instead of red sand stone and use of pietre dura for decorative purposes.
  • He built Moti Masjid in Lahore and his own mausoleum at Shahdara (Lahore).

Shah Jahan

  • Shah Jahan commissioned the Jami Mosque within the precincts of the dargah of the Sufi saint. Muinuddin Chisthi, at Ajmer and paid regular homage at the shrine till the end of his reign.
  • Mosque building activity reached its climax in Taj Mahal. He also built the Jama Masjid (sand stone). Some of the important building built by Shahajahan at agra are Moti Masjid (pniy mosque of marble) in Agra, Khaas Mahal, Musamman Bun (Jasmine Palace where he spent his last years in captivity ) and Sheesh Mahal with mosaic glasses on walls and ceilings.
  • Many stone buildings were destroyed by him and replaced by marble. He laid the foundations of Shahjahanabad in 1637 where he built the Red Fort and Taqt-i-taus (Peacock throne).

केन्द्रीय सशस्त्र पुलिस बल (सहायक कमांडेंट) के लिये स्टडी किट

Study Kit for Central Armed Police Forces(AC)

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