CAPF-AC (Assistant Commandant) Exam Study Material :
History - The Sultanate of Delhi (1206 Ad-1526 Ad)
History : The Sultanate of Delhi (1206 Ad-1526 Ad)
In the thirteenth century, a new kind of dynastic realm
emerged in Delhi. The Delhi Sultanate had its origins in victories by Muhammad
Ghuri, who marched into the 2Indus basin to uproot the Ghaznavids in 1186. In
1190, he occupied Bhatinda, in Rajasthan, which triggered battles with
Prithviraja Chauhan, whom he finally defeated in 1192. When Muhammad died in
1206, his trusted Mamluk (ex-slave) general, Qutbuddin Aibak declared an
independent dynasty in Delhi. His dynasty was the first in a series that became
collectively known as the Delhi Sultanate.
India had come to be viewed by Central Asian warriors as
a rich place to raid in order to finance their Central Asian wars. But the
Delhi Sultanate’s defeat of the Mongols changed the political environment,
because it marked a domestication of Central Asian sultans inside India,
where they had rich territory to defend and where they became part of a
changing political culture.
The Delhi Sultanate attained fame by repelling Mongols
who were unstoppable elsewhere in Asia. Genghis Khan (1150s or 1160s to
1227) unified Mongol tribes to establish the largest ever empire in history
Turkish warriors related by marriage to Mongols did,
however, succeed in India. Timur, also known as Tamerlane, was born at Kish,
near Samarkand, in a short-lived Mongol successor state, the Chaghatai
Khanate of Trans-Oxiana. He conquered the Ganga basin and put the governor
of Multan on the Delhi throne on his way back to Afghanistan.
Mohammadbin-Qasim (a deputy of the Arab governor of
Iraq) invaded and occupied Sind in 711-712 AD. Henceforth Sind continued to
be under Muslim occupation. Inability of the Arabs to penetrate further into
Mahmud of Ghazni invaded India totally 17 times, first
raid was in 1001; 17th raid was in 1025 to plunder the Somnath Temple in
Gujarat; main purpose of his raids to plunder India.
Main purpose of invasions of Muhammad of Gaur was to
acquire territories in India, His first invasion occupation of Multan
(1175); Failure of his attempt to conquer Gujarat (1178) and his defeat by
its Solanki ruler (Bhima II was the first Indian ruler to defeat Muhammad of
Ghur); First Battle of Tarain (1191) -his defeat by Prithviraj Chauhan
(ruler of Ajmer); Second Battle of Tarain (1192) - his defeat of Prithviraj
Chauhan; Battle of Chandwar (1194) -defeat of Jai Chandra (the Ghadvala
ruler of Kanauj): His last campaign in India (1206) to suppress a rebellion
of the Khokhars in Punjab, and his murder by an Afghan Muslim fanatic.
Slave Dynasty (1206 – 90)
Qutb-uddin aibak (1206 – 10)
The sudden death of Muhammad Ghuri and his failure to
specify succession procedures pitted his three leading slaves, Tajuddin
Yalduz, Nasiruddin Qubacha and Qutbuddin Aibak against each other.
Qutb-ud-din Aibak was the founder of first independent
Turkish kingdom in northern India. For his generosity, he was given the
title of Lakh Baksh (giver of lakhs).
He constructed two mosques - Quwal-ul-lslam at Delhi and
. Adhai din ka Jhopra at Ajmer. lie also began the construction of Qutub
Minar, in the honour of famous Still saint Khawaja Qutub-ud-din Bakhtiyar
Aibak was great patron of learning and patronized writers
like Hasan- un-Nizami. author of Taj-ul- Massir and Fnkhr-ud-Din. author of
Tarikh- i-Mubarak Shahi.
Faced with indigenous hostility and pressure from fellow
Turkish slaves, Aibak stationed himself at Lahore to better monitor- the
activities of his rivals and maintain a firmer grip over the Indian
However, in A.D. 1210, within four years of assumption,
of power, he died after a fall from his horse while playing chaugan (a form