CAPF-AC (Assistant Commandant) Exam Study Material : History - The Sultanate of Delhi (1206 Ad-1526 Ad)

CAPF-AC (Assistant Commandant) Exam Study Material : History - The Sultanate of Delhi (1206 Ad-1526 Ad)

History : The Sultanate of Delhi (1206 Ad-1526 Ad)

In the thirteenth century, a new kind of dynastic realm emerged in Delhi. The Delhi Sultanate had its origins in victories by Muhammad Ghuri, who marched into the 2Indus basin to uproot the Ghaznavids in 1186. In 1190, he occupied Bhatinda, in Rajasthan, which triggered battles with Prithviraja Chauhan, whom he finally defeated in 1192. When Muhammad died in 1206, his trusted Mamluk (ex-slave) general, Qutbuddin Aibak declared an independent dynasty in Delhi. His dynasty was the first in a series that became collectively known as the Delhi Sultanate.

  • India had come to be viewed by Central Asian warriors as a rich place to raid in order to finance their Central Asian wars. But the Delhi Sultanate’s defeat of the Mongols changed the political environment, because it marked a domestication of Central Asian sultans inside India, where they had rich territory to defend and where they became part of a changing political culture.

  • The Delhi Sultanate attained fame by repelling Mongols who were unstoppable elsewhere in Asia. Genghis Khan (1150s or 1160s to 1227) unified Mongol tribes to establish the largest ever empire in history till then.

  • Turkish warriors related by marriage to Mongols did, however, succeed in India. Timur, also known as Tamerlane, was born at Kish, near Samarkand, in a short-lived Mongol successor state, the Chaghatai Khanate of Trans-Oxiana. He conquered the Ganga basin and put the governor of Multan on the Delhi throne on his way back to Afghanistan.

  • Mohammad­bin-Qasim (a deputy of the Arab governor of Iraq) invaded and occupied Sind in 711-712 AD. Henceforth Sind continued to be under Muslim occupation. Inability of the Arabs to penetrate further into India.

  • Mahmud of Ghazni invaded India totally 17 times, first raid was in 1001; 17th raid was in 1025 to plunder the Somnath Temple in Gujarat; main purpose of his raids to plunder India.

  • Main purpose of invasions of Muhammad of Gaur was to acquire territories in India, His first invasion occupation of Multan (1175); Failure of his attempt to conquer Gujarat (1178) and his defeat by its Solanki ruler (Bhima II was the first Indian ruler to defeat Muhammad of Ghur); First Battle of Tarain (1191) -his defeat by Prithviraj Chauhan (ruler of Ajmer); Second Battle of Tarain (1192) - his defeat of Prithviraj Chauhan; Battle of Chandwar (1194) -defeat of Jai Chandra (the Ghadvala ruler of Kanauj): His last campaign in India (1206) to suppress a rebellion of the Khokhars in Punjab, and his murder by an Afghan Muslim fanatic.

    केन्द्रीय सशस्त्र पुलिस बल (सहायक कमांडेंट) के लिये स्टडी किट

    Study Kit for Central Armed Police Forces(AC)

Slave Dynasty (1206 – 90)

Qutb-uddin aibak (1206 – 10)

  • The sudden death of Muhammad Ghuri and his failure to specify succession procedures pitted his three leading slaves, Tajuddin Yalduz, Nasiruddin Qubacha and Qutbuddin Aibak against each other.

  • Qutb-ud-din Aibak was the founder of first independent Turkish kingdom in northern India. For his generosity, he was given the title of Lakh Baksh (giver of lakhs).

  • He constructed two mosques - Quwal-ul-lslam at Delhi and . Adhai din ka Jhopra at Ajmer. lie also began the construction of Qutub Minar, in the honour of famous Still saint Khawaja Qutub-ud-din Bakhtiyar Kaki.

  • Aibak was great patron of learning and patronized writers like Hasan- un-Nizami. author of Taj-ul- Massir and Fnkhr-ud-Din. author of Tarikh- i-Mubarak Shahi.

  • Faced with indigenous hostility and pressure from fellow Turkish slaves, Aibak stationed himself at Lahore to better monitor- the activities of his rivals and maintain a firmer grip over the Indian territories.

  • However, in A.D. 1210, within four years of assumption, of power, he died after a fall from his horse while playing chaugan (a form of polo).

केन्द्रीय सशस्त्र पुलिस बल (सहायक कमांडेंट) के लिये स्टडी किट

Study Kit for Central Armed Police Forces(AC)

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