Its total land frontier of 15,200 kilometres passes
through marshy lands, desert, level plains, rugged mountains, snow covered
areas and thick forests.
The land frontier is provided by the high Himalayan
Mountains, which are world’s most elevated ranges.
The Himalayan ranges form a natural frontier between
India and China. In the northwest, India’s Jammu and Kashmir share the
international border with Sinking and Tibet in China.
Towards its east, Himachal Pradesh and the mountain
region of Uttarakhand have common frontier with Tibet.
Nepal has its border with Uttar Pradesh and Bihar.
West Bengal and Sikkim also touch the Nepalese border for
a small distance.
India-Afghanistan and Pakistan-Afghanistan international
boundary is called the Durand Line, determined as a “militarily strategic
border between British India and Afghanistan”.
The boundary with Pakistan and Bangladesh (the East
Pakistan) was finalized at the time of partition in 1947 through the
India’s frontiers with Pakistan are artificial and
unsatisfactory except in some limited and uninhibited dry parts of the Thar
In Punjab, the frontier runs through a smooth and fertile
plain, which is purely man made. The Indian frontier with Pakistan in
Kashmir is still disputed and has led to strained relations between the two
countries since partition in 1947.
The eastern boundaries of India are formed by a complex
chain of the Himalayan offshoots consisting of the Mishmi, the Patkai, the
Naga hills, the Barail range, the Mizo hills and finally the majestic Arakan
Yama Mountains range.
The Arakan Yoma is submerged in the Bay of Bengal for
sufficiently long stretch and emerges again in the form of Andaman and
Between the eastern states of Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura
and Mizoram on one hand and West Bengal on the other hand, lies Bangladesh.
The boundary line between India and Bangladesh
crisscrosses the vast Ganga - Brahmaputra delta. This boundary runs through
an entirely flat country in which there is not even a small mount or hill
which could be used for demarcating the boundary between the two countries.
Besides, there is a maritime boundary of 6,100 kilometres
along the main land mass which increases to 7,516 kilometres if the
coastlines of Andaman-Nicobar and Lakshadweep Islands are added to it.
The nearest neighbour in the south across the seas is Sri
Lanka which is separated from India through the narrow channel of Palk
Similarly Eight Degree Channel forms the boundary between
Lakshadweep and Maldive islands.