CAPF-AC (Assistant Commandant) Exam Study Material : Environment & Ecology - Environment & Human Health

CAPF-AC (Assistant Commandant) Exam Study Material : Environment & Ecology - Environment & Human Health

Environment & Ecology

Environment & Human Health

Consideration of the importance of physical, chemical and thus environmental factors in disease first emerged from recognition that disease patterns in industrial nations are different from under-developed countries. Theoretically and to a large extent in practice, different effects at different levels of severity can be associated with different amounts of exposure to a particular pollutant, higher exposure causing a more severe effect. Actually the range of exposure, time and types of effects are so different that for most practical purposes, we usually just speak of two completely different sets of effects acute and chronic effects. Acute effects arise abruptly in a few days or weeks of exposure to relatively high pollution levels. Chronic effects occur slowly, getting highly worse year by year. They are associated with long term exposure to relatively low levels of pollution. Chronic effects are of much more concern since they effect many more people and are difficult to study.

Health problems in Rural and Urban Environment


  • Unsafe drinking water, lack of sanitation and hygiene result in diarrhoea.

  • Indoor smoke from solid fuels causes acute respiratory infections in children, chomic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancer.


  • Air pollution causes cardiovascular mortality, lung cancer and mortality from acute respiratory infection in children.

  • Exposure to lead causes cardiovascular diseases and mental retardation in children.

  • Spread of infectious diseases in large population in short period of time due to overcrowded living. (Ref.: Factsheet, Down to Earth.)


  • The World Health Organization estimates that poor environmental quality contributes to 25 per cent of all the preventable ill-health in the world today. Polluted air, insufficient safe drinking water, contaminated food, inadequate sanitation and crowded living, exposure to disease vectors, exposure to pesticides, fertlisers, heavy metals etc. are the major factors of ill-health.

  • Diseases such as cholera, malaria, tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS still continue to be unchecked and added to this burden are present day health problems of respiratory infections, cancer, heart problems, accident, and injuries.

  • According to CSE (Centre for Science and Environment) reports at least a million people die every year because of water pollution and another 50,000 to 100,000 because of air pollution India. This is a loss of human resource to the society as a whole.

  • As per World Health Organisation definition our rural population has three major enemies - poverty, poor nutrition and parasitic infestations With this background the poor new migrant to the cities have low vitality, and hence are more susceptible to the adverse health effects of industrial pollutants. Quite often they cannot afford to bring along their families. This results in smoking, alcoholism and addiction to drugs and prostitution, which lead to deterioration of health and increased morbidity. They succumb easily to killing diseases like heart attack and cancer. Infact, the combination of various factors poses a greater risk than exposure to each separately because of their synergetic effect.

केन्द्रीय सशस्त्र पुलिस बल (सहायक कमांडेंट) के लिये स्टडी किट

Study Kit for Central Armed Police Forces(AC)

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