to include local communities in Forest Management has become a growing
concern. Local people will only support greening an area if they can see
some economic benefit from conservation.
informal arrangement between local communities and the Forest Department
began in 1972, in the Midnapore District of West Bengal. JFM has now evolved
into a formal agreement which identifies and respects the local community’s
rights and benefits that they need from forest resources.
JFM schemes, Forest Protection Committees (FPCs) from local community
members are formed. They participate in restoring the green cover and
protect the area from being over-exploited.
Narayani River of Nepal has been polluted by factories located on its bank.
This has endangered the fish, dolphins, crocodiles, and other flora and
fauna of the region.
World Bank’s withdrawal from the Sardar Sarovar Project in India in 1993 was
a result of the demands of local people threatened with the loss of their
livelihoods and homes in the submergence area.
in Gujarat, on the Narmada River, has displaced thousands of tribal folk,
whose lives and livelihoods were linked to the river, the forests and their
agricultural lands. While they and the fishermen at the estuary have lost
their homeland, rich farmers downstream will get water for agriculture.
Forest Department has leased land for mining in the Sariska Tiger Reserve
area by denotifying the protected forest areas. The local people have fought
against the mining lobby, and have filed a Public Interest Litigation (PIL)
in the Supreme Court in 1991. Rajendra Singh, secretary of TBS, points out
that as many as 70 mines operate- in close proximity to the forest.
small and arid state of Israel began using drip irrigation systems, as it is
short of water. With this technique, Israeli farmers have been able to
improve the efficiency of irrigation by 95%. Over a 20-year period, Israel’s
food production has doubled without an increase in the use of water for
agriculture! Today, Israel is one of the major suppliers of fruits and
vegetables in the world.