Online Course for Central Armed Police Forces (CAPF) Exam
History : Gandhian Era (1917-1947)
Mahatma Gandhi was born on 2 October, 1869 at Porbandar of Kathiawar in Gujarat.
His full name was Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi. At the age of 13 only, his
marriage was solemnised with Kasturba. In 1887, he went to England for higher
education and returned to India in 1892 after becoming a Barrister. In 1893, he
went to South Africa to plead for a case. In fact, he had gone there on a
contractual assignment for a year but spent almost twenty-two years in that
country. In January 1915, when he returned to India, he found the whole country
involved in the war efforts of the British. Gandhi’s political thoughts were
Dear Candidate, This Material is from CAPF (Assistant Commandant) Study Kit.
based on religion. But he did not adopt religion in a communal sense. He had
firm belief in Hinduism but his Hinduism was more in the form of humanism. He
used to give importance to truth, non-violence, morality, universal brotherhood,
sacrifice and self-confidence in politics. Gandhi recorded his initial thoughts
in 1909 in Hind Swaraj. These thoughts were based on his personal experiences.
The original version of these thoughts were written in Gujarati.
Mahatma Gandhi had laid great stress on satyagraha in his thoughts. Satyagraha
means pursuance of truth. It means striving for truth even by undergoing
physical pain. Gandhi relied on the methods of non violence to strive for the
truth. Thus, it was agreeable to him to suffer physical hardship for the sake of
He used to accept Satyagraha not simply as a means but as a principle by itself.
He himself had written “Satyagraha is (such) a spiritual principle which is
based on love for the mankind. There is no feeling of hatred in it towards the
Mahatma Gandhi considered four preconditions as necessary for a satyagrahi to
fulfil. He stated : “After a great deal of experience, it seems to me that those
who want to become passive resisters for the service of the country have to
observe (1) perfect chastity, (2) adopt poverty, (3) follow truth, and (4)