Education in Indian Economy
Q. Write a short notes on RTE Bill 2010.?
Answer: Primary Education: India joined the club
of developed/developing countries with compulsory education on 1st April, 2010
when Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act (2009) became
effective though Article 21A was inserted in Indian constitution through 86th
amendment in 2002. Thus all children of 6-14 years are to get free education up
to 8th standard (elementary education) and at the same time through Article 51A
(K) it is the fundamental duty of all parents and guardians to send their
children to schools. It also provides for better teacher-pupil ratio, opening of
more schools, more buildings, more classrooms, toilets, trained teachers,
improvement in curriculum and library / lab and, on the other hand, it prohibits
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physical punishment and mental harassment,
screening procedures for admission,
private tuition by teachers, and
running of schools without recognition.
Q. What are the draw back which are notable in higher and
technical education in India?
Answer: Due to vast expansion of higher and technical
education over the years, India has the third largest technical manpower in the
world after US and China. But following drawbacks are notable in higher and
technical education in India :-
UGC has over- regulated and restricted the autonomy of
universities in India; further it has ignored and not provided adequate
funds to state universities which are in large number but due to paucity of
fund are not flourishing, about one lakh students go to foreign countries
for quality higher education every year and this leads to drain of huge
amount because often per head expenditure on one student is 25 lakh rupees
in a year. Thus at least Rs. 500 crore is drained from India every year in
this regard. Further about 80 percent of such students prefer to work in
western countries. Surprisingly many Indian students also go to China for
technical education (especially engineering and medicine). In 2006, lakhs of
students from various developing countries (especially China and India)
contributed $ 18000 million to US economy and $ 8000 million to Australian
Not a single Indian university (including IIT and IIM) gets
rank in top 100 universities in the world (as per Times Higher Education
ranking) whereas some universities from Japan, China, Singapore, Korea etc.
find their ranks there.
After liberalisation, in 1991, there have been mushrooming
growth of private universities and colleges in India without maintaining
higher academic standard and transparency in administration. They are
charging very high capitation fee/ donation as well as other charges
illegally and unethically. And even then enrolment in public and private
sector higher education is only 13 percent whereas it is 50 percent in
developed countries and in some developed countries like US above 80
percent; China has 23 percent enrolment rate.
Many engineers and management postgraduates are not capable
of handling the expected tasks. Hence they are not employable or to be
adjusted to lower jobs. As per Mckinsey report 75 percent of graduate
engineers in India are too poorly educated to function effectively in the
economy without additional on-the–job training. Thus their productivity is
low. Further though Indian economy is growing faster at 8-9 percent annually
than earlier at 3-4 percent, yet sufficient jobs have not been created
resulting into `jobless growth’ whereas China is growing much faster as well
as creating sufficient jobs.
National Knowledge Commission has diagnosed ten ailments of
outdated curricula have not kept pace with the times;
learning places premium on memory rather than understanding;
the milieu is not conducive to anything beyond class;
academic calendar is no longer sacrosanct for classes or
the infrastructure is on the verge of collapse;
the boundaries between disciplines have become `dividing
the importance of research has eroded;
decline in volume of research (frequency of publication) and
quality of research;
little accountability – no rewards for performance and no
penalties for non – performance;
governance structure not responsive to changing times and
circumstances that the system is readily subverted by vested interests.