(Online Course) Pub Ad for IAS Mains: Chapter: 8 Development Dynamics - Bureaucracy & Development (Paper -1)

Paper - 1
Chapter: 8 (Development Dynamics)

Bureaucracy & Development

Concept- (Dealt in Development Dynamics & Bureaucracy)

Weberian Model: Bureaucracy i.e. legal national Administrative system- an ideal type administrative system.
Organized mechanism involves — hierarchy, Impersonal written records, sphere of competence etc.
According to Weberian : It is most national Administrative System. Being rational, scientific etc. it is most efficient form of organisation. According to Weberian, bureaucracy is a Vehicle for development.
Therefore in certain situation it might act as hindrance to development.

This Model challenged by many empirical theorists.
Like Monroe Berger,
        Michael Crazier
        Robert Pros thus.
        Dell any etc.

Weberian Bureaucracy lacks empirical validity: Berger in his study published in his book Bureaucracy & society in Egypt.
Egyptian Bureaucracy is not exactly what Weber has explained.

Riggs- Philippines, Thailand & India.
In his book prismatic society.
Though Administrative in context of there is structurally Weberian, functionally non Weberian.
Micheal Crozier in his book (Bureaucratic Phenomena)
Study taken in context of France.
Not necessary Weberian Bureaucracy structure is found in French Bureaucracy is highly rule bound and displays certain feudal characters.
Ralph Braibanti: Pakistan Bureaucracy structurally resembles Weberian Bureaucracy functionally authoritarian, sectionalist feudal.
All indicate now Weberian Bureaucracy lacks empiricaify.


Organic model of administrative ecological, adaptive model of administration).
Highly critical of Weberian Bureaucracy.
He says, Weberian Bureaucracy is a static state model takes the environment for granted.
Not appropriate, mechanistic, inward working, closed model.
Peter Balu’s model systemic model, organize model.
Constantly keep on changing.
Peter Blau : development from the perspective.

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Administration which is changing in state of flux.
Situational theory says - Not necessarily in every circumstance the dynamic form is useful.

  • James Thompson

  • Warren Beamish organic Adaptive.

  • Alvin Toffler (adhocracy)

  • Baras & Stalker etc. (mechanistic & organic structure)


Mechanistic - in stable environment.
Organic - in turbulent environment.
Industrialization docile man - Weberian Bureaucracy model.
Post industrialization dynamic man- Organic Adaptive structure.
IT - Because of this different b/w different places & time is mitigated for this bureaucracy is not suited.
Peter Blau’s says- Weberian Bureaucracy does not have any relevance. Organic, Adaptive, echological model.

Situational Theory

There are number of areas or activity that needs stability. Weberian Bureaucracy mechanistic model should also be considered. For development to happen both Weberian Bureaucracy as well as the dynamic model both required. Weberian Bureaucracy is not necessarily suitable but also not necessarily completely outdated.

Development Administrative Model

Nature of administrative that should be there meant for the consumption of developing country.
Development B. should be action oriented decentralized, participative, flexible etc. Change oriented instead of status quoits in nature.
Loyal to disprivileged, constitution rather than being loyal to entrenched interests. Administrative started function : Committee of developing countries Bulk of countries individual late 40, 50. Process of change started in 1950s.
Outwardly concept was White Man’s Burden. High moral ground. Actual reason- contain communities. Practice - rule bound, rigid mechanistic bureaucracy.
Bureaucracy rule oriented, rigid, centralized non-participate is not suitable for change thus not suitable for development.
Action oriented, flex, democracy, participative decentralized. Suitable for change thus for development.
Therefore Weberian Bureaucracy obstructs development.
None of these model completely do explain the phenomena of Bureaucracy as being vehicle of development. Most of appropriate is situational model.


Undertook study in context of Indian Administration. They found that in context of Indian Administration.
When HQ. (Secretariat) has been based on W.B. has worked well. When Field has been based on P. Bank’s model it has worked well.
Bureaucracy of Administrative system can act a development bureaucracy only when it is appropriately linked to the development.


Whether Indian Bureaucracy has acted as vehicle of development or as obstruction to development.
Right from the beginning we have tried to bring about a development Bureaucracy.
After Independence character of state changed.
Earlier- Police state coercive state.
Post 1947- Nature of state changed (Service Oriented State) advanced character of welfare state.
The initiative the discriminatory approach for dis-privileged, marginalized.
State wanted to bring about end to multiple disability, poverty, low productivity, low physical infrastructure malnutrition etc.
Bring into condition of development.
Followed strategy of modernization. Industrialization, Urbanization with due emphasis on enhancing agricultural productivity.
State Led Bureaucratic Strategy based on mixed economy, centralized, planning, five year plans.

Number of initiatives taken,

Land Reform

  • Community Development Projects.

  • Area Based Approach

  • Target Based Approach

  • Poverty Alleviation Programme

  • Integrated Rural Development Approach.

  • Empowerment Approach.

  • PSUs were required to attain commanding height of economic with due support from that of the Private Sector.

State Led Bureaucratic Approach:

Huge category of Bureaucracy & Administrative but in place known as Development Bureaucracy.
Physically linked to development north of State:
Put in charge of bring about end to disabilities and bring about faster changes on account of developmental indicators.

Study of Pai Panandhikar:

  • Premlata Bansal

  • Kuldeep Mathur etc.

  • C.P. Bhambri

  • Ramashray Roy

Bureaucracy to be vehicle of development.
Required to be disciplined, (Weberian character)
Weberian Characteristics honestly categrity, scientific, rule obeying rational.
Non-Weberian characterist: Bureaucracy should be dynamic democratic, participative, flexible, action oriented, goal- oriented, decentralized.


Character which has been obstructing in development.
Indian Bureaucracy being Bureaucratic in nature is anti developmental. Elitism, Babuism, status quoism. The addresses one aspect. Which undermine the capacity as being vehicle of development.
Widespread corruption, selective application of Law. Question on integrity. These are also hindrances in development.


Relating to members of IAS.
They hold key to Indian Administration.
To analyze development characteristic of this service.
Finds two disabilities:

  1. Elitist character of IAS, resulting into huge distancing b/w people & the officer.
    This has weakened the capacity of IAS to involve people in process of development.

  2. Huge operational autonomy in the absence of mature political surveillance and adequate checks and balances. This has resulted into rampant corruption whimsical action, authoritarianism.

Another study by PANANDHIKAR relating to personnel system in Indian Administrative.

This system is highly mechanistic orthodox in nature.
Lacks in physical strength to bring about faster changes.


Relating to BDOs of U.P. and Rajasthan.
Came up in light of Poor Developmental performance of development bureaucracy.
- Indian Bureaucracy is rule on. Less respect for law, Cent. Non-part rigid high instance of corruption.
Not suitable for I.B. to act a vehicle of development.
Provided image as an obstruction.

1980, onwards critical change.

  • Introduction of I.T.

  • Strengthening of Public Grievance Redressal System.

  • Setting up of cont. Local Participative bodies.

  • Deliberate attempts to expand the frontiers of C. Society.

  • Introduction of competition environment Towards approach of governance and NPM.

Making Indian Bureaucracy move towards being democratic decentralized, flexible, action oriental Administration System.
Make Indian Bureaucracy balanced, democratic, representative and participative bureaucracy.
This it infuse in character of being a developmental bureaucracy.

E.H. Valsan:

Provided nomination model of development Bureaucracy.

  • Kola of Development Bureaucracy

  • Goal of Development Bureaucracy

  • Requirements of Development Bureaucracy

  1. Bureaucracy should be progressive, innovative and change oriented rather than being status quoist.

  2. Development Administration should have as its goal the constitutional ideals, humanitarian ethos, internationalism, social ethos. Should pursue this with missionary or reformist approach.

  3. Referred that Development Bureaucracy (conceptual skill) right mental skill, human skill, technical skill & social skill.

    Ability to think in lateral thinking.
    Social — to act as a group member.
    Human — Education Health.
    Technical — Technical knowledge, expertise.
    Type of behavioral requirements.
    Development Bureaucracy sensitive, responsive, client oriented, friendly.
    Structural Requirements:
    Development Bureaucracy instead of being models on W.B. model it should be dynamic or organismic.
    Irrespective of the Indian Bureaucracy
    Irrespective features, lacunae’s need to be rectified, it also has lot to its credit. Contribution to Development.

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