Daily Special Current Affairs Material for IAS (Pre) 2013
Chapter: National Issues
Topic: Role of Green Revolution
Q. When and where indica-japonica rice hybridization programme
Ans. The indica-japonica
rice hybridisation programme started at the Central Rice Research Institute in
Cuttack in the early 1950s. The programme lost its priority after genes to
develop semi-dwarf varieties of rice became available in the 1960s from Taiwan
and the International Rice Research Institute in the Philippines.
Q. Give a brief description of background about announcement of
Ans. Dr. Borlaug wanted to
see Indian growing conditions before making up a set of breeding lines, and paid
a visit in March 1963. The multi-location trials revealed that the semi-dwarf
wheats of Mexican origin could yield four to five tonne a ha, in contrast to
about two tonnes a ha of the tall Indian varieties. It became clear that India
had the tools with which to shape its agricultural destiny.
In 1968, Indian farmers harvested about 17 million tonnes of wheat; the earlier
highest harvest was about 12 million tonnes in 1964. Such a quantum jump in
production and productivity led Indira Gandhi to announce the ‘Wheat Revolution’
in July 1968.
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Q. How coined the term ‘green revolution’?
Ans. The term Green Revolution coined by
William Gaud of the U.S. in 1968, involved synergy among technology, services,
public policies and farmers’ enthusiasm. Farmers, particularly those in Punjab,
converted a small government programme into a mass movement.
Q. Why green revolution was criticised by some activists?
Ans. The Green Revolution was criticised by
social activists on the ground that the high-yield technology involving the use
of mineral fertilizers and chemical pesticides is environmentally harmful.
Similarly, some economists felt that the new technologies would bypass small and
marginal farmers, for although the technologies are scale-neutral, they are not
resource- neutral. This led to coining the term “ever-green revolution,” to
emphasise the need to enhance productivity in perpetuity without ecological
Q. What is the ratio of productivity of food grains of India to China?
Ans. The productivity of food grains in
China is currently 5,332 kg a ha, while it is 1,909 kg a ha in India.
Q. What are the problems which are being faced by farmers in green revolution
Ans. The heartland of the Green Revolution,
comprising Punjab, Haryana and Western Uttar Pradesh, is in an ecological
crisis, as a result of the over-exploitation of groundwater and the spread of
salinity. This region will also suffer most if the mean temperature rises by 1
degree to 2 degrees C as a result of global warming.
Q. Which traditional agriculture systems of India have been recognised as
‘Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems and why?
Ans. The Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO)
recently recognised the Traditional Agriculture System of Koraput, Odisha, as a
Globally Important Agricultural Heritage System. This is because the system
provides an outstanding contribution to promoting food security, biodiversity,
indigenous knowledge and cultural diversity for sustainable and equitable