(IGP) Special Current Affairs Material for IAS (Pre) 2013 - PIB "Topic : Improving Forecasting Services"

(IGP) Special Current Affairs Material for IAS (Pre) 2013

Chapter: Gist of Press Information Bureau Articles

Topic: Improving Forecasting Services

Q. Which stations have been covered under network of air pollution monitoring?

A network for air pollution monitoring stations has been set up at Allahabad, Jodhpur, Kodaikanal, Minicoy, Mohanbari, Nagpur, Port Blair, Pune, Srinagar and Visakhapatnam to collect rain samples for chemical analysis and measurement of atmospheric turbidity with the objective of documenting the long-term changes in the composition of trace species of the atmosphere.

Specific services pertaining to the assessment of likely air pollution impacts arising from thermal power generation, industries and mining activities have also been provided.

Q. How Fishery advisory helps fishermen in fishing activities?

Sea Surface Temperature (SST), the indicative parameter of the environment is most easily observed on satellite images. The availability of food is an important factor which controls occurrence of fish, their abundance and migration in the sea. Chlorophyll-a is an indicator of the availability of food for fish.

These forecasts are routinely given thrice-a-week and are valid for a period of three days along with the ocean state forecast. These advisories are given in nine local languages and English through the web email, fax, radio and TV as well as electronic display boards in fishing harbours and information kiosks. It has been estimated that 40,000 fishermen use these advisories. It saves a lot of fuel and time (60-70 per cent) and thus allows for efficient fishing. It has been estimated that the success rate is around 80 per cent.

Q. Indian Ocean Forecasting System (INDOFOS)?

The Indian Ocean Forecasting System (INDOFOS) launched in February 2010 includes forecasts of ocean wave height, wave direction, Sea Surface Temperature (SST), surface currents, Mixed Layer Depth (MLD) and depth of 200 C isotherms for the next five days at six hourly intervals.

The beneficiaries of INDOFOS are traditional and mechanized fishermen, the maritime boards, the Indian Navy, the Coast Guard shipping companies and petroleum industries, energy industries and academic institutions. Location-specific models for wave forecasts for Gujarat, Maharashtra, Karnataka and Pondicherry have been set up which are being extensively used by port authorities.

Q. What are the initiatives taken to harness ocean mineral resources?

India has been planning to harness ocean mineral resources. This requires the development of a set of three pieces of equipment, viz., In-situ soil tester, Remotely Operable Vehicles (ROV), and a deep sea crawler.

The in-situ soil tester for measuring sea bed soil properties and the ROV were successfully tested in April, 2010 at a depth of 5300 m. complete hardware and software for the instrumentation and control systems were developed indigenously. The crawler to collect nodules has been tested at a depth of 450 m off the Malvan coast.

Q. What is the technological advancement in the field of marine ornamental fishes?

The development of hatchery technology of commercially important species is a major area for the providing alternate employment to fishermen. Black lip pearl oysters are being produced at the Andaman hatchery. Breeding and rearing technology for marine ornamental fishes, viz., eight species of Clown fishes and ten species of Damsel fishes has been perfected. Techniques for captive breeding, larva development and the mass culture of juveniles on four species of gastropods have been perfected. The technology has been transferred to local fishermen.

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