(IGP) GS Paper 1 - India & World Geography - "India Physical"

Integrated Guidance Programme of General Studies for IAS (Pre)

Subject - India & World Geography
Chapter : India Physical

Important Mountain Range

Karkakoram Ranges
  • Extend from the Pamir, east of the Gilgit River, 600 km long and the average width - 120-140 km.
  • Ancient name was Krishnagiri.
  • Trans Himalaya, originally a part of Eurasian plate.
  • Abode of largest glaciers in India.
  • Siachen, Baltoro, Biafo, and Hisper glaciers.
  • Highest Peak (in India): K2 or Godwin Austen (8611 m).
  • Other Important Peaks: Gasherbrum I or Hidden Peak, Broad Peak and Gasherbrum II.
  • In the northern limit of Karakoram Range lies the Pamir, the Aghil Mountains, and Yarkand River and in the southern limit lies the River Indus and its tributary Shyok.

Laddakh Range

  • Situated to the north of the Indus Tsangpo Suture Zone (ITSZ) and south of Karakoram, between River Indus and Shyok.
  • Highest Peak: Mt. Rakaposhi (steepest peak in the world)

Great Himalaya or Himadari

  • Northern most part of the Himalayan Range is the world’s highest part with an average altitude of 6100 m above sea level.
  • Include the world’s highest peak, Mt. Everest (8,848 m) and other high peaks-Makalu (8,481 m), Mansalu (8,156 m), Annapurna (8,,078 m) and also the Indian peak Manghenjunga (8,598 m) and Nanga Parbat (8,126 m).
  • Includes some famous passes—Burzil and Zozi La in Kashmir, Shipki La and Bara Lacha La in Himachal Pradesh, Thaga La, Niti Pass, and Lipu Lekh in U.P., Jelep La and Nathu La in Sikkim.

Zaskar Range

  • Situated on the western part of the Greater Himlaya and to the south of Trans Himalaya.

Nanaga Parbat (8,126 m)

  • Forms the north-west part of Zaskar Range but geographically confined to Kashmir-Himachal Pradesh-Garhwal region.
  • Second highest peak of the Himalayan Range in India.

Lesser Himalaya or Himachal

  • Lying to the north of Siwalik Range they are separated from the Siwalik Range by Duns—Dehradun, Kothridun and Patlidun.
  • Pir Panjal Range
    (a) Located in Kashmir—Punjab and extends from the Jhelum River to the upper Beas River for over 300 km.
    (b) Separated from the Zaskar Range by the valley of Kashmir.
  • DhaulaDhar
    (a) Southern most range of the Lessers Himalaya.
    (b) Rarely attains elevations higher than 4,000 m.
    (c) Continue eastward into Mahabharat Range.

Siwalik Range

  • Extends from Jammu & Kashmir (150 km wide) to Arunchal Pradesh (8-15 km) over 2400 km.
  • Also known as Sub-Himalaya or Outer Himalaya.
  • Northern limit—Main Boundary Thrust which separates Outer Himalaya from the Lesser Himalaya. Its southern limit is Indo Gangetic Plain.
  • Youngest part of mountain chain, stretching from the Brahmputra to the Indus.

For Detail Description, Analysis and More MCQs of the Chapter Buy this Study Notes:

The Indian Plateau

  • These highlands are situated to the north of Narmada rift vallye.
  • Bundelkhand Plateau is a part of central highlands and is composed of granite and gneisses.
  • Malwa plateau is an example of dissected lava plateau, which is covered with black soil.


  • It comprises of Garo, Khasi and Jaintia Hills.
  • Originally a part of Peninsular plateau.
  • Garo-Rajmahal Gap separates it from the main block of peninsular plateau.


  • Highest Peak - Parasnath (1,366 m) in the Hazaribagh Plateau.
  • Situated in the north eastern part of Indian Plateau includes the region of Jharkhand, adjoining Chhattisgarh and West Bengal.
  • It consists of the Ranchi Plateau in the south, the Hazaribagh Plateau in the north, and the Rajmahal Hills in the northwest.
  • Described as the “Ruhr of India”
  • Pat lands are one of the chief characteristics of Chotanagpur Plateau.
  • Very rich in mineral resources.


  • South of the Satpura Range in the peninsula is called the Deccan Plateau.

The West Coastal Plain

Runs from Rann of Kachchh to Kanyakumari and are confined to a narrow belt about 10-15 km wide.

Kathiawar Coast

  • Extends from Rann of Kuchchh to Daman in the south.

Konkan Coast (Total length : 500 km)

  • The West Coastal Plain between Daman in the north and Goa in the south in example of coast of submergence due to vertical movements, and is consequently dissected.

Malabar Coast

  • Extends from Goa in the north to Kanniyakumari in the south is a coastline of emergence.

  • Southern coastal region receives more rainfall during summer monsoon season.

The East Coastal Plain

Extends from the deltaic plains of the Ganga in the north to Kanniyakumari in the south for 1100 km with an average width of 100 to 130km.

Utkal Coast

  • Extends for about 400 km from a little north of Subarnarekha river of the Ganga of the Mahanadi delta.

Andhra Goastal Plains

  • Extends from the southern limit of Utkal plains to Pulicat lake (Andhra Pradesh).

  • It has large deltas of the Krishna and the Godavari rivers.

Tamil Nadu Plains

  • Extends about 675 km, from the north of Chennai to Kanniyakumari in the south.

  • It has the deltaic plains of Cauvery and is popularly called, the Granary of South India

For Detail Description, Analysis and More MCQs of the Chapter Buy this Study Notes:

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