(IGP) GS Paper 1 - History of India & Indian National Movement - "North India between 750-1200"

Integrated Guidance Programme of General Studies for IAS (Pre) - 2013

Subject -  History of India & Indian National Movement
Chapter : North India between 750-1200

Four Agnikula Rajput

The four class dominated by early Rajputs which they founded arose from the ruins of the older Pratihara Kingdom. These were-

  • The Pratihara-also known as Parihara who based themselves in Southern Rajasthan.

  • The Chauhans-Ruled and area in Eastern Rajasthan, helped Praithara against Arabs.

  • The Solankis-also called Chalukyas of Gujarat were based in Kathiawar.

  • The Pawars or Parmars-established their control in Malwa with their capital at Dhar near Indore.

All the four claimed descent from my thical figure who arose out of the vast sacrifical fire pit near Mt. Abu. Consequently they were described as the Agnikula of the fire family.


Chola Cultural Achievements

  • Temple architecture , particularly Dravida or the South Indian style of architecture reached the pinnacle of glory during the Cholas. The chola continued the Pallava architectural style. The Dravida style of architecture of the Chola had certain special features. It included a (Storey) Vimana, a mandapa, (getway) gopuram, lion pillars, brackets and composite pillars.
  • Vijayalaya built the Vijaylayacholeshwar temple at Narttamalai.
  • Parantaka I built Korangnath temple at Srinvasnatlur. Rajaraja built the Rajarajjeshwar temple (also called Brihadeshwar) at Tanjore.
  • Rajendra built Brihadeshwar temple at Gangaikonda-Cholapuram.
  • The Tanjore temples hadmurals on prranas and sculptures of Rajaraja and his queen Lokamahadevi and the Gangaikondacholapuram temple has that of Rajender and his queen Cholamahadevi.
  • The Cholas were famous for bronze statue Of Nataraja; (dancing Shiva) used cireperdue method.

Village Types

  • Mainly 3 types of villages were found in India during this period.
  • The village with multicast population, paying taxes to the king, was most frequent.
  • Brahmadeya or agrahara village- granted to the brahamins and entirely inhabited by them, was less frequent.
  • Devdeya Village-Those granted to god similar to the first. During the Pallava period first two types were predominant, but under the Chola the third type gained popularity.

Chola Self Government

The cholas are best known for their lical selfgovernment at village level. In Uttaramerur inscription Dantivarman pallav and Purantaka I have thrown sufficient light on the local self government of Cholas. The assemblies were of 3 types Ur, Sabha and Nagaram. The appointment of these assemblies were made by election, “Vyavasthas”

(a) The Three Types of General Assemblies

  • Ur: a general assembly of the village consisting of the taxpaying residents.
  • Sabha or Mahabhasa: Its membership was restricted to the Brahmana of the village. Found in Bramadeya and Agrahara villages.
  • Nagaram: was found more commonly in trade centers such as cities and town.

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