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(IGP) GS Paper 1 - History of India & Indian National Movement - "The Marathas"

Integrated Guidance Programme of General Studies for IAS (Pre) - 2013

Subject -  History of India & Indian National Movement
Chapter : The Marathas

Shivaji

  • Shivaji belonged to Bhonsle Clan.

  • Guru Ramdas was his political Guru.

  • His coronation was held at Raigarh in 1674. His kingdom was called Swaraj.

  • He adoped the titles of Chhatrapati, Haindava Dharmodharak & Kshatriya Kulavatamsa.

  • He had confrontation with Afzal Khan of Bijapur in 1659.

  • He also had confrontation with Shayista Khan in 1660.

  • He sacked Surat in 1664 again in 1670.

  • Died in 1680

The Ashtapradhan

THE PESHAWAS

  • Balaji Viswanath        1713-20
  • Baji Rao I                  1720-40
  • Balaji Baji Rao            1740-61
  • Mahadev Rao             1761-72
  • Narayan Rao              1772-73
  • Swami Madhav Rao  1773-95
  • Baji Rao Ji                  1795-1818

Maratha Families and Their Headquarters

  • Pashwa                 Poona

  • Scindia                 Gwalior (Initially Ujjain)

  • Gaekwad              Baroda

  • Bhonsle                Nagpur

  • Holker                  Indore

  • Pawar                  Dhar

Maratha Confederacy

Balaji Viswanath

  • The first Peshwa, in 1713.
  • Induced Zulfiquar Khan to pay Chauth and Sardeshmukhi of Deccan.
  • Helped the Sayyid brothers to overthrow Farruksiyar
  • Introduced Saranjami System

Baji Rao I

  • The greatest exponent of Guerrilla tactics after Shivaji
  • Worsted Nizam-ul-Mulk twice.
  • Compaigned against the Portuguese-captured Salsette & Bassein
  • Compaigned against the Sidis of Janjira
  • Propounded concept of Hindu Pad Padshahi, Real architect of Maratha Empire.

Balaji Baji Rao (Nana Sahib)

  • Maratha families came into prominence.

  • By the will of the king Shahu the Peshwa became the official head.

  • Capital was shifted to Poona from Satara.

  • Invaded Bengal repeatedly – gained Orissa.

  • Helped Imad-ul-mulk to become Wazir.

  • Invasion of Ahmed Shah Abdali – Battle of Panipat 1761 – the nominal head of the Maratha army was Viswas Rao and the actual commander was Sadasiva Rao Bhao (killed in the battle). Artillery was under the command of Ibrahim Gardi.

Baji Rao II

  • Son of Raghunath Rao.

  • Mahadji Schindia rose to prominence. He established control over Shah Alam and secured the appointment of Peshwas as the emperor’s deputy.

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