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(IGP) GS Paper 1 - History of India & Indian National Movement - "The Mughal Kings"

Integrated Guidance Programme of General Studies for IAS (Pre) - 2013

Subject -  History of India & Indian National Movement
Chapter : The Mughal Kings

Babur (1526-30)

  • Belonged to Cheghati section of the Turkish race

  • Originally fromFarghana (Trans – ociana). Born in 1483 in the family of Taimur

  • Was invited by mahmud Khan Lodi AND Ranasanga

Akbar

  • Founded a new capital city Fatehpur Sikri (1572-80) which contains edifices of high quality like Buland Darwaja, Diwani-i- Khas, Turkish Sultan’s Palace,

  • Panch Mahal etc. Agra and also Lahore served as his capital cities.

  • Akbar designed his mausoleum himself which was constructed by Jahangir at Sikandara

  • A skilled musician and player of ‘Naqqara’(Kettled drum)

  • Some of the great musicians like Tansen, Baba Ramdas and Baba Haridas adorned his court

  • The mode of calligraphy favourite to Akbar was ‘ Nastaliq’.

  • Some of the prominent painters who wre in court of Akbar were Khawaja Abdus Samad. Dasawanta & Basawan.

  • Made Persian translation of Mahabharta known as ‘Razm –Naman’. Also got Ramayana Translated into Persian.

  • Muzaffar Khan , Todarmal & Shah Mansur were three most notable wazir of his time.

  • Compiled a code of education regulations.

  • Prohibited polygamy.

  • Assumed the title of Zul –i- ilahi (Shadow of god).

  • Introduced Gaz-i-ilahi, of 41 digits a new yard for land measurement (89 inches in length) in1588.

  • In 1573 introduced Kirori experiment.

  • In 1581 introduced Dah- sala system (important role of Todar Mal)

  • Akbar’s empire was divided into 12 subas (1575). Later the number rose upto 15 (1605)

Jehangir (1605-27)

  • Popular known as ‘Salim’ born at Lahore in1569.

  • Promulgated twelve edicts / ordinances for the general welfare and better government to mark his coronation. Capital city was at Agra

  • Lost the province if Kandhar to Persia.

  • Married Mehrunnisa (daughter of Mirza Ghiya Beg) later known as Nuramahal& Nurjahan.

  • Formation of Junta( Clique) comprising Nurjehan , her father Mirza Ghiyas Beg (Itimaud- Daula) her brother Asaf Khan Jehangir’s eldest son and son-in-law of Asaf Khan Khurram which practically played a decisive role in running the government for many years.

  • Mughal Painting reached its climax during his reign, great progress was made in portrait painting & paintings of animals, Mansure was the greatest name in this field

Shahjahan

  • Real name Khurram. Born in 1592 . Died in 1666.

  • Witnessed a war of succession among his four sons. Later on impressed till death by Aurangzeb.

  • Made greatest contribution to architecture, introduced large scale use of marble , pietra dura and added elegance and sophistication in buildings.

  • Built magnificient edifices like the Red Fort ( Red Stone ), the Jma Masjid ( Red Stone), the Taj Mahal (Marble ),and the Moti Masjid ( Marble )at Agra.

  • Foreign travelers Brenier (French) Travenier (French) and Manucci (Italian ) visited his court.

  • Got built the Peacock throne Takht-i-Taus (1628-35) and Taj Mahal (1632-56)

Aurangzeb (1657-1707)

  • Adopted the title of Alamgir (Conqueror of the world), Badshah (Emperor) and Ghazi (Holy Warrior).

  • Confronted a number of rebellions

  • Jats under Gokala Rajaram and Churaman successively.

  • Satnamis (Mudiyas0 by the followers of Birbhan

  • Sikhs, after humilitation and imprisionment of Shambhaji

  • Rajput by Rathors ofMarwar after the death of Jaswant Singh, on account of Aurangzeb’s refulas to recongnise Ajit Singh (Posthumous son of Jaswant Singh) as the legal heir.

  • Bundelas led by Champat Rai & Chhatrasal

  • Abolished Rahdari (Inland transit duties) Pandari (Octroi and Abwab (Miscellaneous taxes).

  • Discontinued the practice of inscbing the Kalima (Muhammadan confession of faith) on the coins.

  • Built Pearl Mosque (Moti Masjid) inside the red Fort at Delhi

  • He was regarded as a ‘Zinda Pir’ (a living saint)

  • Appointed a board of ulemas to compile a digest on law which came to be known as Fatwa-i- Alamgiri.

  • Appointed ‘Muhtasibs’.

POLITICO-ADMINISTRATIVE UNITS

Subah

  • The largest unit equivalent to province.

  • The head was known as Nazim or Subedar of Sipahsalar.

  • Other functionaries at this level were: Diwan (Finance), Bakshi (Defence), Sadr (religious affairs) and Qazi (justice).

Sarkar

  • The unit was equivalent to district.

  • Headed by Faujdar or Shiqdar or Shiqdar- I_Shiqdaran. He was overall incharge of law & order.

  • Assessment & collection of revenue was looked after by Amalguzar.

  • The head of the district treasury was Khazandar.

  • Bitikchis functioned as writers and record keepers.

Pargana

  • The administrative unit next to sarkar.

  • Headed by Shiqdar, who was in charge of law & order.

  • The revenue official at this level was Amil.

  • The head of the treasury was Fotadar.

Village

  • Village affairs were looked after by the  Panchayat.

  • Lambardar was the head of the Panchayat.

  • There was a Chowkidar.

Later Mughals

Bahadur Shah (1702-12)

  • Aurangzeb died in 1707. He had surviving sons- Price Muzzam, Muhammad Azam and Kam baksh.

  • Price Muzzam succeeded the throne by defeating Azam at Jajau (1707) and Kam Baksh at Hyderabad (1709) and adopting the title Bahadur Shah.

  • Adopted pacific polices.

  • Reserved some of the religious policies of Aurangzeb.

  • Guru Govind Singh was given highmansab and had peace with the Sikhs.

  • Sahu, son of Sambhaji (Karasha) was released (captured by Aurangzeb) After which there began a civil war between Sahu and Tara Bai for Maratha Thoren.

  • Known on Shah-i-Bekhaber

Jahander Shah (1712-13)

  • Parctice of revenue farming of ‘Ijara’ was started

  • Abdulah Khan was made the Wazir and

  • Hussain Ali the Mir Bakhi known as Sayyid brothers known as King Maker.

Farrukh Siyar (1713-1719)

  • Chin Qulich Khan or Nizam-ul-Mulk was made governor of the six provinces of Deccan.

  • Banda Bahadur, the Sikh leader, was defeated captured and put to death at Delhi 1716.

  • Sayyid brothers adopted tolerant polices towards Hindus.

  • Jizya was finally abolished

  • Pilgrimage taxes were also abolished .

  • Sayyid brothers virtually became king-makers.

  • Farruksiya was killed by sayyid brothers.

Muhammad Shah (1719-48)

  • Rose to Mughal throne by the Sayyid brothers after death of Rafi-ud-Daulah.

  • Original name was Raushan Akhtar, but took the title of Muhammad Shah after he became the Mughal emperor.

  • Nizam-u-mulk was made Wazir in 1722. He carried out many administrative reforms, but dissatisfied over the infighting at the court, left for deccan, where he founded the state of Hyderabad after defeating Mughal governor of Deccan, Mubariz Khan in the battle of Shakr- Khed (1724)

  • Musrshid Quli Khan was governor and subedar of Bengal.

  • Burhan-ul-Mulk Saadat Khan was made subedar of A sadh, also followed similar course and established his rule over there.

  • Thus Bengal and Bihar, Awadh and Decean were lost to the Mughals. However, they never threw the over lordship of the Mughal Emperor.

  • Found of Luxurious style of living, and hence called “Rangilla”

  • 1739-Attack of Nadir Shah.

  • Mughal army fought at the Battle of Karnal but was defeated

  • Nadir Shah marched to Delhi and plundered it, meanwhile, Saadat Khan poisoned himself to death.

  • Nadir Shah collected huge war booty, and took away the famous Koh-i-noor diamond, the Peacock Throne and large number of books on music.

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