(IGP) GS Paper 1 - History of India & Indian National Movement - "The Sultans of Delhi"

Integrated Guidance Programme of General Studies for IAS (Pre) - 2013

Subject -  History of India & Indian National Movement
Chapter : The Sultans of Delhi

Qutubuddin Aibek

  • Founder of the Sultanate of Delhi, & the first Independent Muslim ruler.

  • A turk of ‘Aibak’ tribe which means ‘Lord of the moon’.

  • Founder of the Slave Dynasty.

  • Died whole playing Chaugan (Polo)

  • Laid the foundation of Qutab Minar after the name of a Sufi Saint Khawaja Qutubuddin  Bakhtiyar Kaki.

  • Built tow mospues “Quwan-ul-Islam mosque” at Delhi and “Dhai Din ka Jhonapara” at Amer.

Shamsuddin Iltutmish

  • Real founder of Delhi Sultanate.

  • Introducced silver “Tankk’(175 grains) & ‘Jital’ two principal coins.

  • Completed the construction of Qutab Minar.

  • Created ‘Turkan-i-Chanhalagani’ a selected body of Trukish nobles.

  • Coming of Mongols under the leadership of Changiz Khan to the frontiers of India91220 AD)

  • Indroduced Iqta System in administration.

  • Declared Rajiya as his heir apparent.

Ghiasuddin Balban

  • Consolidator of the Sultanate of Delhi.

  • First Sultan to put forward his views about Kingship according to which the king was the shadow of God title Nvabat-i-khudui and inscribed –zillah on coins .

  • Created a separate military department (Diwan-i-Ariz) and appointed Kotwal.

  • Regulated court ceremonial after Persian mode, introduced Sijda ) prostration) Paibok 9 Kissing the monarach’s feet) and celebration of Persian ‘Nauroz’.(New year day)

  • Destroyed the ‘group of forty’ or chahalgani.

  • Belonged to the Ilbari tribe.

  • Adopted the policy of ‘Blood and Iron’ in governance

Alauddin Khalji

  • Like Balban. He believed that Sultan is Good’s representative on earth and declared himself second Alexander

  • The only man who could presume to advise the king was Ala-ul-mulk, the kotwal of Delhi.

  • During his time the army was directly recruited by the army minister (ariz— mamalik). It was paid in cash form the royal treasury. The pay of trooper was 234 tankas a year, while one with and additional horse was paid 78 tankas more, Ala-ud-din instituted the practice of recording the descriptive roll N Chehra (huliya) of individual soldiers and the branding of horses (dagh system).

  • For regulation and control over markets he instituted now official machinery, Diwan-iriyasat the head of entire market control system Shshna-i-mandi the superintendent of market, and Rais Parwana, the permit officer of markets.

  • Created a new department of revenue (Diwani- Mustakharaj) to realize arrears.

  • Introduced house tax and pasture tax, ghari/ charai respectively.

  • Built ‘Alai Darwaja’, ‘Siri fort’ Mahal-i-Hazar Situn’, “Zamait-e-khana mosque.”

Mohammad Bin Tughlaq

  • Formulated ‘famine-code’ to provide relief to famine-affected people.

  • Created the department of agriculture (Diwani- Amirkohi)

  • Is known as “Misture of opposites” or a mad king”.

  • Enhanced revenue or doab to one half of the produce.

  • Shifted capital from Delhi to Devagiri (rename, Daulatabad) in 1326-27.

  • Introduced token currency of copper and brass(1329-30)

  • Known as a ‘prince of moneyers’.

  • First sultan to advance loans known as sondhar to peasants for digging wells to extend cultivation.

Firoz Shah Tughlaq

  • Was a cousin of Mohammed Bin Tughlaq and was offered the crown by the nobles.

  • Made ‘Iqta system’ hereditary.

  • Founded several cities like Firozabad, Fatehabad, Hissar, Jaunpur, Firozpur etc.

  • Wrote the autobiography “Futuhat-i-Firogshahi”

  • Diwan-i-khairat was the special creation of Firoz for helping the poor Muslim parents in the marriage of their daughter. It was in charge of Sayyid Amir Miran.

  • The department Diwan-I-Bandgan was also a new creation of Firuz which administered the affairs of the slaves. Raised a huge force of slaves numbering 180000.

Sikandar Bahlul Lodi Ibrahim

  • Introduced a new gaz known as gaz-i-Sikandari of 32 digit.

  • He was fond of literature and poetry and wrote verses in Persian under the name of Ghirlakhi.

  • The main achievement of the Sultan was the conquest and annexation of Bihar.

  • Founder of Agra city in 1506 and made it his capital

Main Departments of the Sultanate

  • Diwan-I-Waziarat
    The head of the department was wazir who exercised general supervision over all departments & in particular the department was associated with the finance.

  • Diwan –I-Arz
    The head of the department was Ariz-imumalik
    This was the military department.
    Overall commander of the army was the Sultan.

  • Diwan –I – Insha
    The head of the department was Dabir-imumalik
    Looked after state correspondence
    Associated with issuing of farnans.

  • Diwan-I- Risalat
    The head of the department was Sasr-us-Sudur

Delhi and its different names through times

  • Allaudin Khalji constructed Siri Fort in 1303 AD.

  • Ghaisuddin Tughlaq built Tughlaqabad in 1321.

  • Md. Bin Tughlaq constructed Adilabad.

  • Md . Bin Tughlaq founded other city knows as jahanpanah.

  • Firoz Shah Tughlaq built Firozabad in 1354

  • Humayun constructed Dinpanah in 1533

  • Shershah built Purana Quilla at the site of Jahanpanah

  • Shahjanah founded Shajhanabad in 1684.

Amir Khusro

  • His real name was Abdul Hasan.

  • He created a new literary style in Persian which came to be known as Sabaq -I- Hindi

  • He composed verses in Hindi as well and paved the way for the development of Urdu

  • He lived through the reigns of six sultans - patronised by Jalaluddin Khalji Alauddin Khalji and Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq.

  • He was a disciple of Nizamuddin Auliya the famous Sufi saint of Chisti order.

  • He introduced numerous perso-arabic ragas–aiman sanam ghura etc.

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