(IGP) GS Paper 1 - History of India & Indian National Movement - "The Vedic"

Integrated Guidance Programme of General Studies for IAS (Pre) - 2013

Subject -  History of India & Indian National Movement
Chapter : The Vedic

Vedic Period (Important Terms)

  • Akratuh — People who had no faith in rituals.
  • Anas — People who didn’t have prominent nose
  • Apah — Water
  • Brahmin — Rituals
  • Dam - House
  • Dunitri — daughter
  • Gana - Tribal militia
  • Gavisti — war
  • Godhara — guest
  • Godhuli—evening
  • Gomat — a wealthy person
  • Gopa (Janasya) — the ruler
  • Gorasa-milk
  • Gosthi — meeting
  • Gotra- Cow pen
  • Gvayuti — measurement of distance
  • Mridhvaka — who were not adept in Vedic language
  • Panch Char Sanyah — Five wandering tribes.
  • Pani — people having cattle wealth (traders)
  • Parjanya — cloud
  • Purodasa — Materials used in Yajana
  • Rayi — Cattle wealth
  • Sadam - House
  • Sala — House
  • Sardha — Tribal militia
  • Sisandeva — Wroshippers of phallus symbol.
  • Vayadh — Costumes of a bride.
  • Vesmin — House
  • Vrata — people who hadnot a well established marriage system or who had incestuous relation.
  • Vrata - Tribal militia

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Vedic Geography

Adhavaryn Yajurveda
Anandaka Sadania
Brahma Atharva Veda
Champaran Champararanya
Chenab Askini
Delhi Indraprastha
Deobanda Dritvan
Ghaghar Drisdvasti
Hakra Sarswati
Haryn Saryn
Himalaya Himvanta
Hota Rigveda
Indus Sindhu
Jhelum Vilasta
Kabul Kubha
Magadha Kikatvan
Mithila Videh
Ravi, Parusani
Ritual Priests Vedas
Saran Nairnisheranya
Sutlej Satudri
‘Udgata Sarnveda
Vyas Vipasa

Vedas and their branches

Vedas Branches
Rigveda Sakal, Vaskal, Asavala, Yan, Sakhayan and mandukeya
Samveda Kauthum and Ranayaniaya
Yajurveda Madhyandin and Kanva
Athar Veda Paiplad and Saunak

References & Evidences,

  1. Origin of Indian music - Sam Veda
  2. Mention of the word Sudra’- Rig Veda (10th Mandala)
  3. 'Gayatri Mantra’- Rig Veda
  4. Mention of the word Gotra’- Atharva Veda
  5. Origin of kingship Brahainma - Aitareya
  6. 'Soma’, the intoxicating drink and the god who lends his name to the drink - Rig Veda (9th Mandala)
  7. Mention of the word Varna’- Rig Veda
  8. Four-fold division of society - Rig Veda (10th Mandala)
  9. Purusa Shukta Hymn - Rig Veda
  10. First three ‘ashramas’(Brahmacharin, Grihastha, Vanaprastha) - Chandogya Upanishad
  11. Four ashrams (Brahmacharin, Grihastha, Vana- prastha, Samyasin) - Jabla Upanishad
  12. Doctrine of’Trimurti’- Maitrayani Upanishad
  13. Origin of the Universe - Rig Veda (10th Mandala)
  14. Mention of the ‘Great Flood’- Satpatha  Brahamana
  15. Samsara (Transmigration of soul) - Brahadarankya Upanishad
  16. Kshatriyas Precedence over Brahamanas - Atreya  Brahamana
  17. Gamester’s Lament - Rig Veda
  18. Vratyastoma -Tandya Maha Brahmana
  19. Division of India into five parts - Aitreya  Biahmana
  20. Mention of the Divine Horse ‘Dadhikara’- Rig Veda
  21. Sabha & Samiti as the twin daughters of Prajapati - Atharva Veda
  22. Baffle often kings between Sudan and Bhed for the water of Parnsni - Rig Veda (VII Mandala)
  23. Mention of the easten and western seas - Satpatha Brahmana
  24. Surdas as the servant of another to be expelled at will and to be slain at will - Atreya Brahmana
  25. Ganga - Rig Veda (X, Mandala)
  26. Sabha as Narishta - Atharvaveda
  27. Satya Meva Jayate  - Mundaka  Upanishad

Factual Aspects

Rig Veda

  1. Collection of Hymns
  2. Oldest of all the vedas
  3. Contains 1017 Suktas
  4. Contains 11 Balakhilya, that makes the total no. of Suktas 1028.
  5. Contains 10 ‘Mandals’
  6. The oldest Mandalas are II, III, IV, V, VI and VII known as family books on acount of their composition being described to various families of sages.
  7. The mandalas II to VII are ascribed to Gritsamada Viswamitr.a, Vamadeva, Arti, Bhardwaja and Vasistha.
  8. The latest mandalas are I, VIII, IX and X.
  9. The IX mandala is completely devoted to the vedic God soma,
  10. BrahrnanasofRigveda
  • Aiterya Bralvnana
  • Sankbayana Brahmana

11. Upanishads of Rigveda

  • Aitareya Upanishads
  • Kaushitaaki Upanishad
  • Priest related to Rigveda — Kotri or Motri
  • Upveda of Rigveda is - Ayurveda.

Yajur Veda

1. Collection of rituals for performing different sacrifices.

2. Recited by the priests known as Adhavarm

3. Consists of 40 chapters.

4. The only veda party in prose.

5. Divided into two parts Krishna/Black Yajurveda (commentary in prose) and Suklal White Yajurved (sacrificial formulae and rituals).

6. Brahmanas of Yajurveda

7. Tattiriya Brahmana — Related with Krishna Yayurveda.

8. Satpatha Brahmana — Related with Sukta Yajurveda.

9. The lengthiest of all the Brahmanas.

10. The most important of all the Brahmanas.

11. Upanishads of Yajurveda

  • Tattiriya Upnishad
  • Brihadaranyaka Upanishad is the largest one
  • Kathad Upanishad- describes story of Nachiketa.
  • Isa Upanishads
  • Sveiasvatara Upanishad
  • Upveda of Yayurveda - Dhanurveda.
  • Related priest-. Adhwariyu.

Sam Veda

  1. Collections of hymns taken from the Rig Veda and set to tunes for the purpose of singing.
  2. Only 75 hymns are original.
  3. Known as the ‘Book of chants’.
  4. Hymns are meant for singing at Soma sacrifices
  5. Sung by a particular type of priests known as Udgatari.
  6. Consists of 1810 (1549, omitting the repetitions)
  7. Brahmanas
  • Jaiminiya Brahmana

8. Upanlshads

  • Chanddogya Upanishad describes about Lord Krishana

9. Kena upanishad/Talavakara Upanishad.

10. Upveda of Samveda is Gandhaveda.

The Atharva Veda

  1. Collection of charms, magic and spells.
  2. Preserves many popular cults and superstitions, contains non-Aryan elements (folk elements).
  3. Belongs to Saunakiya & Paipalado schools.
  4. Contains 711/731/760 hymns.
  5. Contains 20 Kandas or books.
  6. The Knadas 18, 19 and 20 are later additions.
  7. The hymns are meant for warding off evils & demons, winning over friends aid gain material success. No Brahmanan belongs to Atharvaveda.
  8. Upanishads of Atharvaveda
  • Mundaka Upanishad-mentions ‘Stya Mev Jayate’.
  • Prasana Upanishad
  • Mandtkya Upanishad
  • Upveda of Atharvaveda — Shilpveda.

Samskaras and Rites During The Vedic Period

Pancha-Mahayajanas (Five great daily sacrifices)

  • Dev yajan (to the God)
  • Bhut (to animals)
  • Nriyajan (to men)
  • Risi yajan (to Saifls)
  • Pitri Yajan (Fore fathers)

For Detail Description, Analysis and More MCQs of the Chapter Buy this Study Notes:

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