Integrated Guidance Programme of General Studies for IAS
(Pre) - 2013
Subject - General Science
Chapter : The Circulatory System
Circulatory Systems in Single-celled Organisms
Single-celled organisms use their cell surface as a point of
exchange with the outside environment. Sponges are the simplest animals, yet
even they have a transport system. Seawater is the medium of transport and is
propelled in and out of the sponge by ciliary action. Simple animals, such as
the hydra and planaria lack specialized organs such as hearts and blood vessels,
instead using their skin as an exchange point for materials. This, however,
limits the size an animal can attain. To become larger, they need specialized
organs and organ systems.
Circulatory Systems in Multicellular Organisms
Multicellular animals do not have most of their cells in
contact with the external environment and so have developed circulatory systems
to transport nutrients, oxygen, carbon dioxide and metabolic wastes.
i. Blood: a connective tissue of liquid plasma and cells
ii. Heart: a muscular pump to move the blood
iii. Blood vessels: arteries, capillaries and veins that deliver blood to all
Types of circulatory systems
The open circulatory system
The open circulatory system, examples molluscs and
arthropods. Open circulatory systems (evolved in insects, mollusks and other
invertebrates) pump blood into a hemocoel with the blood diffusing back to the
circulatory system between cells. Blood is pumped by a heart into the body
cavities, where tissues are surrounded by the blood. The resulting blood flow is
Closed circulatory system
Vertebrates, and a few invertebrates, have a closed
circulatory system. Closed circulatory systems (evolved in echinoderms and
vertebrates) have the blood closed at all times within vessels of different size
and wall thickness. In this type of system, blood is pumped by a heart through
vessels, and does not normally fill body cavities. Blood flow is not sluggish.
Hemoglobin causes vertebrate blood to turn red in the presence of oxygen; but
more importantly hemoglobin molecules in blood cells transport oxygen. The human
closed circulatory system is sometimes called the cardiovascular system. The
lymphatic circulation, which is also secondary circulatory system collects fluid
and cells and returns them to the cardiovascular system.
Vertebrate Cardiovascular System
The vertebrate cardiovascular system includes a heart,
which is a muscular pump that contracts to propel blood out to the body
through arteries, and a series of blood vessels.
Contraction of the ventricle forces blood from the heart
through an artery.
The heart muscle is composed of cardiac muscle cells.
Arteries are blood vessels that carry blood away from
heart. Arterial walls are able to expand and contract.
Arteries have three layers of thick walls. Smooth muscle
fibers contract, another layer of connective tissue is quite elastic,
allowing the arteries to carry blood under high pressure
The pulmonary artery is the only artery that carries
oxygen-poor blood. The pulmonary artery carries deoxygenated blood to the
lungs. In the lungs, gas exchange occurs, carbon dioxide diffuses out,
oxygen diffuses in
Higher pressures (human 120/80 as compared to a 12/1 in
lobsters) mean the volume of blood circulates faster (20 seconds in humans,
8 minutes in lobsters).
Ventricular contraction propels blood into arteries under
great pressure. Blood pressure is measured in mm of mercury; healthy young
adults should have pressure of ventricular systole of 120mm, and 80 mm at
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The heart is a muscular structure that contracts in a rhythmic pattern to
pump blood. Hearts have a variety of forms:
Chambered hearts in mollusks and vertebrates
Tubular hearts of arthropods, and aortic arches of
Accessory hearts are used by insects to boost or
supplement the main heart’s actions.
Fish, reptiles, and amphibians have lymph hearts that
help pump lymph back into veins.
The basic vertebrate heart, such as in has two chambers.
An auricle is the chamber of the heart where blood is received from the
body. A ventricle pumps the blood it gets through a valve from the auricle
out to the gills through an artery.
The Human Heart
The human heart is a two-sided, four-chambered structure
with muscular walls. An atrioventricular (AV) valve separates each auricle
from ventricle. A semilunar (also known as arterial) valve separates each
ventricle from its connecting artery.
The heart beats or contracts approximately 70 times per
minute. The human heart will undergo over 3 billion contraction cycles
during a normal lifetime.
The cardiac cycle
The cardiac cycle consists of two parts: systole (contraction
of the heart muscle) and diastole (relaxation of the heart muscle). Atria
contract while ventricles relax. The pulse is a wave of contraction transmitted
along the arteries. Valves in the heart open and close during the cardiac cycle.
Heart muscle contraction is due to the presence of nodal tissue in two regions
of the heart.
Blood is a bright red viscous fluid which flows through all
the vessels except the lymph vessels. It constitutes 8% of the total body
weight. Blood is composed of two portions: formed elements(cell and cell like
structures) ad plasma (liquid containing dissolved substances).
Plasma is the liquid component of the blood. Mammalian
blood consists of a liquid (plasma) and a number of cellular and cell
Plasma is about 60 % of a volume of blood; cells and
fragments are 40%. Plasma has 90% water and 10% dissolved materials
including proteins, glucose, ions, hormones, and gases.
It acts as a buffer, maintaining pH near 7.4. Plasma
contains nutrients, wastes, salts, proteins, etc. Proteins in the blood aid
in transport of large molecules such as cholesterol.
Red blood cells
Red blood cells, also known as erythrocytes, are
flattened, doubly concave cells about 7 µm in diameter that carry oxygen
associated in the cell’s hemoglobin.
Mature erythrocytes lack a nucleus. They are small, 4 to
6 million cells per cubic millimeter of blood, and have 200 million
hemoglobin molecules per cell.
Humans have a total of 25 trillion red blood cells (about
1/3 of all the cells in the body).
Red blood cells are continuously manufactured in red
marrow of long bones, ribs, skull, and vertebrae.
White Blood Cells
White blood cells, also known as leukocytes, are larger
than erythrocytes, have a nucleus, and lack hemoglobin. They function in the
cellular immune response. White blood cells (leukocytes) are less than 1% of
the blood’s volume. They are made from stem cells in bone marrow.
There are five types of leukocytes, which are important
components of the immune system.
(a) Neutrophils enter the tissue fluid by squeezing through capillary walls
and phagocytozing foreign substances
(b) Macrophages release white blood cell growth factors, causing a
population increase for white blood cells.
(c) Lymphocytes fight infection.
(d) T-cells attack cells containing viruses.
(e) B-cells produce antibodies. Antigen-antibody complexes are phagocytized
by a macrophage.
White blood cells can squeeze through pores in the
capillaries and fight infectious diseases in intestinal areas
Platelets result from cell fragmentation and are involved
Platelets are cell fragments that bud off megakaryocytes
in bone marrow. They carry chemicals essential to blood clotting.
Platelets survive for 10 days before being removed by the
liver and spleen.
There are 150,000 to 300,000 platelets in each milliliter
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