Knowledge : Famous Scientists
and Their Innovations
German-Swiss, famous scientist known for his theory of relativity. He lived
between 1879 and 1955.
A Greek mathematician who lived about 250 B.C. He discovered the buoyancy in
liquids, which is known as Archimedes Principle. He also invented Archimedean
screw, a cylindrical device for raising water.
Dr. Brain Josephson
He belonged to England. He is known for the discovery of the 'Josephson effect'.
He was honoured with a Nobel Prize for Physics in 1973.
He was an astronomer of Poland who discovered the solar system. He lived between
1413 and 1543.
Dr. Dennis Gabor
A British engineer, presently working in America. He was awarded Nobel Prize for
Physics in 1971 for his invention in development of the holographic method-three
Dr. Edward Teller
A U.S. nuclear scientist. He developed the hydrogen bomb.
Italian scientist, lived between 1874 and 1937. He invented radio telegraphy and
succeeded in sending wireless messages across Atlantic ocean in 1901. He was
honoured with a Nobel prize for Physics in 1909.
Italian scientist. He viewed that all falling bodies, great or small, descent
with equal velocity. He invented telescope and became the first man to see the
satellites of Jupiter. He lived between 1564 and 1642.
He was a French physicist. He lived between 1852 and 1908. In 1896, discovered
Becquerel rays, the first indications of radio-activity; later named as gamma
rays. He shared Nobel Prize for Physics in 1903 with the Curies.
Born in 1731 in Britain. He discovered hydrogen gas, determined the structure of
water molecule and calculated the density of earth by an experiment. He died in
Sir Humphrey Davy
A British chemist. He invented the "safety lamp". First to apply
electric current for the isolation of metals. He lived between 1778 and 1829.
Dr. H. Yukawa
Born in 1907. Predicted a new particle meson which holds the protons and
neutrons of the atomic nucleus. He was the first Japanese to win the Nobel Prize
in Physics (1949).
Sir Issac Newton
He was a British natural philosopher. He discovered 'binomial theorem'; the
differential and the integral calculus and the Universal law of gravitation. He
lived between 1642 and 1727.
Sir James Chadwick
A British physicist. He discovered the particle in an atomic nucleus known as
the neutron, because it has no charge. He lived between 1891 and 1974.
He was a German astronomer. He discovered the three laws of planetary motion. He
lived between 1571 and 1630.
Sir J. J. Thomson
He was a British physicist. He lived between 1856 and 1940. He discovered the
electron which resulted in the development of Electronics, a branch of Physics.
He was a Scotish engineer., He lived between 1736 and 1819. He invented steam
Prof. John Wardine
Propounded the "Theory of Superconductivity". For this he was honoured
with a Nobel Prize in 1972 with Prof. Kapoor and Schriefer.
W. Konard Rontgen
He was a German physicist. He discovered X -rays or Rontgen rays for which he
was awarded the first Nobel Prize for Physics in 1901. He lived between 1845 and
Madam Marie Curie
She was a Polish physicist and chemist. She discovered radium and was awarded a
Nobel Prize for this in Physics in 1903. She was awarded with a second Nobel
Prize in Chemistry in 1911. She lived between 1867 and 1934.
He was a British scientist. He was prominent in the field of electromagnetism.
He discovered the laws of electrolysis and alternating current. He lived between
1791 and 1867.
A German theoretical physicist. He formulated the quantum theory. He was awarded
with the Nobel Prize for it in 1918.
He was a Danish physicist. He extended the theory of atomic structure of
devising an atomic model in 1913. He was awarded with a Nobel Prize for Physics
in 1922. He lived between 1885 and 1962.
He was a German pioneer of nuclear research. He won the Nobel Prize for
Chemistry in 1944. He proved in 1938 that atomic fission can be achieved by
bombarding Uranium with neutrons.
He was an Irish natural philosopher. He was one of the founders of modern
chemistry and Boyle's law. He lived between 1627 and 1691.
He was a British scientist. He won a Nobel Prize for his work on structure of
atom and radioactivity. He lived between 1871 and 1937.
Robert H. Goddard
He was an American pioneer of space research who mentioned the possibility of
shooting a rocket to the moon in a paper entitled "A Method of Reaching
Extreme Attitudes" published by him in 1919.
Sir Robert Watson-Watt
He was a British physicist. He developed radar.
S. N. Bose
He was an Indian scientist. He discovered a particle called 'boson'. He was
awarded with Padam Vibhushan in 1954. He lived between 1894 and 1974.
Thomas Alva Edison
He was an American scientist. He lived between 1847 and 1931. He invented
phonograph, electric bulb, a new type of storage battery, an early form of
cinematography, telegraph etc.
A Russian pioneer who developed the basic theory of rocketry. He is also known
as Father of Rocketry in Russia. He lived between 1857 and 1935.
Dr. Werner Yon Brown
He is a director of Marshall Space Flight Centre, America. Sattern Vrockets have
been developed here by his efforts by which Apollo 11 and 12 were launched.
He was a British physicist who researched on the behaviour of crystals with
regard to X -rays incident upon them. He lived between 1890 and 1971.
Dr. Homi Jahangir Bhabha (1909-66)
He was an Indian scientist. He published important papers on Cosmic Rays and
Quantum Theory. He was a professor at the Indian Science Institute, Bangalore;
Chairman, Atomic Energy Commission; Director, Tata Institute of Fundamental
Research; President, Indian Science Congress in 1951 and presided at the Atoms
for Peace Conference held at Geneva in 1956. He had many significant researches
in structure of atom and contributed largely to the setting up of atomic
reactors at Trombay (Mumbai).
Dr. S. Bhagvantam
He was born in 1909 and was among the prominent scientists of India who gave
important contribution in radio astronomy and cosmic rays.
Dr. Shanti Swaroop Bhatnagar
He was a great Indian scientist. He was the first Director General of Council of
Scientific and Industrial Research. Under his directorship, many research
laboratories were established throughout India.
Jagdish Chandra Bose (1858Â1937)
He was an eminent Physicist and Botanist. He founded Bose Research Institute,
Calcutta. He invented crescograph.
Prof. Satish Dhawan
An eminent Indian scientist, born in 1920. He was chairman of Indian space
Research Organisation. Indian artificial satellites' Aryabhatta' and Rohini were
launched due to his efforts.
Dr. K. S. Radhakrishnan (1898Â1961)
Dr. Krishnan had contributed greatly in the field of Physics. He associated Dr.
C. V. Raman in the discovery of 'Raman Effect'. He was also the director of
National Physics Laboratory, Delhi.
Dr. B. D. Nag Chaudhary
An eminent Indian Nuclear Physicist known all over the world. He associated Dr.
Lawrence in the invention of Cyclotron. He had also been the director of Saha
Nuclear Institute, Calcutta.
Dr. H. N. Sethna
He has greatly contributed in the development of nuclear technology in India.
First atomic test in India was done under his guidance. He had been the Chairman
of Atomic Power ComÂmission of India. In 1959 he was awarded with Shanti
Swaroop Bhatnagar award and entitled with Padam Shree. He was also honoured with
Padma Bhushan in 1966.
J. V. Narlikar
An Indian scientist who was the co-author of Hoyle-Narlikar theory of continuous
creation which supplies missing links in Einstein's theory of Relativity. Hoyle
and Narlikar have shown that the gravitation is always attractive and there is
no gravitational repulsion.
Dr. Raja Ramanna
A prominent Indian scientist who was instrumental to stage India's first Nuclear
explosion at Pokharan range in 1974. He had been a chairman of Atomic Energy
Dr. C. V. Raman (1888-1970)
First Indian scientist to receive Nobel Prize for Physics in 1929 for his
invention 'Raman Effect'. His study of crystal structure is of unique
importance. He was also awarded with Lennin award and Bharat Ratna.
Dr. Vikram Sarabhai (1919Â1971)
Former Chairman of India's Atomic Energy Commission and the Indian Space
Research Organization (ISRO). Dr. Sarabhai was an eminent physicist mainly
interested in the astrophysical implications of Cosmic Ray Time variations. He
also had an active contribution in the establishÂment of Physical Research
LaboraÂtory, Ahmedabad and Indian Institute of Management.
Dr. Meghnad Saha (1893-1956)
He had provided a great contribution in the field of Physics and Mathematics. He
is well known for his researches in nuclear physics, cosmic rays, spectrum
analysis and other branches of theoretical Physics. Institute of Nuclear Physics
was established due to his efforts. He was also a member of Lok Sabha.
Dr. Subhramanyam ChandraÂshekhar
He was an American of Indian origin. He won Nobel Prize in Physics in 1983. He
is an Astro-physicist. His theory of Stellar Evolution-the birth and death of
stars is 35 years old. He is the fourth Indian to win the Nobel Prize. In 1967,
he was, also honoured by 'National Medal of Science' award in America.
A prominent Indian astronomer of 7th century. Second satellite of India was
named after him.
He was a great Hindu mathematician and astronomer.. His work 'sidhanta siromani'
consists of two parts of mathematics and two parts of astronomy. He had a
fore-sight on the modem theory of conventions.
He was a great mathematician and an astronomer. His contributions include
information about the movement of earth around the sun, determination of various
physical parameters of various celestial bodies such as diameter of earth and
moon. He laid foundations of algebra and pointed out the importance of zero. The
first Indian satellite was named after him.