General Knowledge : Famous Scientists and Their Innovations

General Knowledge : Famous Scientists and Their Innovations

Albert Einstein
German-Swiss, famous scientist known for his theory of relativity. He lived between 1879 and 1955.

A Greek mathematician who lived about 250 B.C. He discovered the buoyancy in liquids, which is known as Archimedes Principle. He also invented Archimedean screw, a cylindrical device for raising water.

Dr. Brain Josephson
He belonged to England. He is known for the discovery of the 'Josephson effect'. He was honoured with a Nobel Prize for Physics in 1973.

He was an astronomer of Poland who discovered the solar system. He lived between 1413 and 1543.

Dr. Dennis Gabor
A British engineer, presently working in America. He was awarded Nobel Prize for Physics in 1971 for his invention in development of the holographic method-three dimensional photography.

Dr. Edward Teller
A U.S. nuclear scientist. He developed the hydrogen bomb.

G. Marconi
Italian scientist, lived between 1874 and 1937. He invented radio telegraphy and succeeded in sending wireless messages across Atlantic ocean in 1901. He was honoured with a Nobel prize for Physics in 1909.

Italian scientist. He viewed that all falling bodies, great or small, descent with equal velocity. He invented telescope and became the first man to see the satellites of Jupiter. He lived between 1564 and 1642.

Henri Becquerel
He was a French physicist. He lived between 1852 and 1908. In 1896, discovered Becquerel rays, the first indications of radio-activity; later named as gamma rays. He shared Nobel Prize for Physics in 1903 with the Curies.

Henry Cavendish
Born in 1731 in Britain. He discovered hydrogen gas, determined the structure of water molecule and calculated the density of earth by an experiment. He died in 1810.

Sir Humphrey Davy
A British chemist. He invented the "safety lamp". First to apply electric current for the isolation of metals. He lived between 1778 and 1829.

Dr. H. Yukawa
Born in 1907. Predicted a new particle meson which holds the protons and neutrons of the atomic nucleus. He was the first Japanese to win the Nobel Prize in Physics (1949).

Sir Issac Newton
He was a British natural philosopher. He discovered 'binomial theorem'; the differential and the integral calculus and the Universal law of gravitation. He lived between 1642 and 1727.

Sir James Chadwick
A British physicist. He discovered the particle in an atomic nucleus known as the neutron, because it has no charge. He lived between 1891 and 1974.

Johannes Kepler
He was a German astronomer. He discovered the three laws of planetary motion. He lived between 1571 and 1630.

Sir J. J. Thomson
He was a British physicist. He lived between 1856 and 1940. He discovered the electron which resulted in the development of Electronics, a branch of Physics.

James Watt
He was a Scotish engineer., He lived between 1736 and 1819. He invented steam engine.

Prof. John Wardine
Propounded the "Theory of Superconductivity". For this he was honoured with a Nobel Prize in 1972 with Prof. Kapoor and Schriefer.

W. Konard Rontgen
He was a German physicist. He discovered X -rays or Rontgen rays for which he was awarded the first Nobel Prize for Physics in 1901. He lived between 1845 and 1923.

Madam Marie Curie
She was a Polish physicist and chemist. She discovered radium and was awarded a Nobel Prize for this in Physics in 1903. She was awarded with a second Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1911. She lived between 1867 and 1934.

Michael Faraday
He was a British scientist. He was prominent in the field of electromagnetism. He discovered the laws of electrolysis and alternating current. He lived between 1791 and 1867.

Max Planck
A German theoretical physicist. He formulated the quantum theory. He was awarded with the Nobel Prize for it in 1918.

Neils Bohr
He was a Danish physicist. He extended the theory of atomic structure of devising an atomic model in 1913. He was awarded with a Nobel Prize for Physics in 1922. He lived between 1885 and 1962.

Otto Hahn
He was a German pioneer of nuclear research. He won the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1944. He proved in 1938 that atomic fission can be achieved by bombarding Uranium with neutrons.

Robert Boyle
He was an Irish natural philosopher. He was one of the founders of modern chemistry and Boyle's law. He lived between 1627 and 1691.

He was a British scientist. He won a Nobel Prize for his work on structure of atom and radioactivity. He lived between 1871 and 1937.

Robert H. Goddard
He was an American pioneer of space research who mentioned the possibility of shooting a rocket to the moon in a paper entitled "A Method of Reaching Extreme Attitudes" published by him in 1919.

Sir Robert Watson-Watt
He was a British physicist. He developed radar.

S. N. Bose
He was an Indian scientist. He discovered a particle called 'boson'. He was awarded with Padam Vibhushan in 1954. He lived between 1894 and 1974.

Thomas Alva Edison
He was an American scientist. He lived between 1847 and 1931. He invented phonograph, electric bulb, a new type of storage battery, an early form of cinematography, telegraph etc.

A Russian pioneer who developed the basic theory of rocketry. He is also known as Father of Rocketry in Russia. He lived between 1857 and 1935.

Dr. Werner Yon Brown
He is a director of Marshall Space Flight Centre, America. Sattern Vrockets have been developed here by his efforts by which Apollo 11 and 12 were launched.

William Bragg
He was a British physicist who researched on the behaviour of crystals with regard to X -rays incident upon them. He lived between 1890 and 1971.

Dr. Homi Jahangir Bhabha (1909-66)
He was an Indian scientist. He published important papers on Cosmic Rays and Quantum Theory. He was a professor at the Indian Science Institute, Bangalore; Chairman, Atomic Energy Commission; Director, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research; President, Indian Science Congress in 1951 and presided at the Atoms for Peace Conference held at Geneva in 1956. He had many significant researches in structure of atom and contributed largely to the setting up of atomic reactors at Trombay (Mumbai).

Dr. S. Bhagvantam
He was born in 1909 and was among the prominent scientists of India who gave important contribution in radio astronomy and cosmic rays.

Dr. Shanti Swaroop Bhatnagar (1878-1955)
He was a great Indian scientist. He was the first Director General of Council of Scientific and Industrial Research. Under his directorship, many research laboratories were established throughout India.

Jagdish Chandra Bose (1858­1937)
He was an eminent Physicist and Botanist. He founded Bose Research Institute, Calcutta. He invented crescograph.

Prof. Satish Dhawan
An eminent Indian scientist, born in 1920. He was chairman of Indian space Research Organisation. Indian artificial satellites' Aryabhatta' and Rohini were launched due to his efforts.

Dr. K. S. Radhakrishnan (1898­1961)
Dr. Krishnan had contributed greatly in the field of Physics. He associated Dr. C. V. Raman in the discovery of 'Raman Effect'. He was also the director of National Physics Laboratory, Delhi.

Dr. B. D. Nag Chaudhary
An eminent Indian Nuclear Physicist known all over the world. He associated Dr. Lawrence in the invention of Cyclotron. He had also been the director of Saha Nuclear Institute, Calcutta.

Dr. H. N. Sethna
He has greatly contributed in the development of nuclear technology in India. First atomic test in India was done under his guidance. He had been the Chairman of Atomic Power Com­mission of India. In 1959 he was awarded with Shanti Swaroop Bhatnagar award and entitled with Padam Shree. He was also honoured with Padma Bhushan in 1966.

J. V. Narlikar
An Indian scientist who was the co-author of Hoyle-Narlikar theory of continuous creation which supplies missing links in Einstein's theory of Relativity. Hoyle and Narlikar have shown that the gravitation is always attractive and there is no gravitational repulsion.

Dr. Raja Ramanna
A prominent Indian scientist who was instrumental to stage India's first Nuclear explosion at Pokharan range in 1974. He had been a chairman of Atomic Energy Commission.

Dr. C. V. Raman (1888-1970)
First Indian scientist to receive Nobel Prize for Physics in 1929 for his invention 'Raman Effect'. His study of crystal structure is of unique importance. He was also awarded with Lennin award and Bharat Ratna.

Dr. Vikram Sarabhai (1919­1971)
Former Chairman of India's Atomic Energy Commission and the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO). Dr. Sarabhai was an eminent physicist mainly interested in the astrophysical implications of Cosmic Ray Time variations. He also had an active contribution in the establish­ment of Physical Research Labora­tory, Ahmedabad and Indian Institute of Management.

Dr. Meghnad Saha (1893-1956)
He had provided a great contribution in the field of Physics and Mathematics. He is well known for his researches in nuclear physics, cosmic rays, spectrum analysis and other branches of theoretical Physics. Institute of Nuclear Physics was established due to his efforts. He was also a member of Lok Sabha.

Dr. Subhramanyam Chandra­shekhar
He was an American of Indian origin. He won Nobel Prize in Physics in 1983. He is an Astro-physicist. His theory of Stellar Evolution-the birth and death of stars is 35 years old. He is the fourth Indian to win the Nobel Prize. In 1967, he was, also honoured by 'National Medal of Science' award in America.

A prominent Indian astronomer of 7th century. Second satellite of India was named after him.

Bhaskaracharya-II (1114-1185)
He was a great Hindu mathematician and astronomer.. His work 'sidhanta siromani' consists of two parts of mathematics and two parts of astronomy. He had a fore-sight on the modem theory of conventions.

Aryabhatta (476-550)
He was a great mathematician and an astronomer. His contributions include information about the movement of earth around the sun, determination of various physical parameters of various celestial bodies such as diameter of earth and moon. He laid foundations of algebra and pointed out the importance of zero. The first Indian satellite was named after him.