(Article) Indian Economics At A Glance

Article : Indian Economics At A Glance


  • BANK RATE - 6.00 %

  • REPO RATE - 8.00 %

  • REVERSE REPO RATE - 6.00 %

  • CRR - 8.25 %

  • SLR - 25.00 %

  • PLR - 12.75 % - 13.25 %

  • SAVING BANK RATE - 3.5 %

  • DEPOSIT RATE - 7.50 % - 9.60 %

1.Money market It refers to borrowing and lending. 2 parts organized and unorganized sector – Organized sector are State Bank, 7 associated banks, 19 Nationalised banks, RRB, Co-operative Banks, Non Governmental sector and other Banks. Unorganized includes the moneylenders and indigenous bankers. 2.Development of Indian Banking: Bank of Hindusthan 1779 was first bank at Calcuttaunder European management-Bank of Bengal 1806 , Bank of Bombay 1840, bank of Madras 1843, were called Presidency banks. 1881- First Bank with limited liability to be managed by Indian Board namely the Oudh Commercial bank- 1894- First purely Indian bank was Punjab National bank- Later Imperial bank 1921 by amalgamating the Presidency banks. RBI created in 1935- nationalized in 1949 – Imperial Bank, renamed as SBI in 1955- 14 Banks (50 crores) nationalized6-96 Banks (2 00crores) nationalized 1980 – N.B.I. merged with P.N.B. in 1993. 3.R.B.I: It has Governor and Board of Directors apart from Central Board 4 local boards. It has following functions: -

Functions Of Banks :
1.Issue of Notes: followed Minimum Reserve System(MRS) – 200 Crore(115Crore gold+85Crore foreign exchange etc.)
2.Banker , Agent and Adviser to the Govt
3.Banker’s Bank : Banking Regulation Act 1949 - Lender to the last resort.(loan to Commerlised Bank)
4.Controller of Credit & money supply
(i)Quantitative: Bank Rate, open Market operation, statutory Liquidity Ratio (SLR), Cash Reserve Ratio (CRR
(ii)Qualitative (or) Selective: since 1956
1)Rationing of Credit
2)Regulation of Consumer credit
3)Variation in margin requirements.
4)Fixation of maximum limit of Credit given for a Special purpose.
5)Discriminatory interest rates on some special types of advances
5.Custodian of Foreign Reserves: RBI buys & sells the foreign currencies
6.Collecting and publishing the economic data.
7. Buying and selling of Govt. securities and trade bills
8.Representing the Govt in IMF.
9.Giving loans to the Govt to buying and selling of valuable commodities etc.
4.Techniques in credit control:
(a) Quantitative and Qualitative Credit Control – Bank rate - SLR, CRR, open marker operations etc., and variation in margin requirements publicity etc.,
(b)Qualitative or Selective Credit Control 1956 – 3 points -fixing margin requirements- maximum limit of credit and different interest rates.
5.Priority sectors:

(a) Houses for slum, credit to formers for purchase, ordinary retailers etc., shall be given priority at least 40% to them

(b) Differential rate of interest – less interest 4% rate for weaker sections. It is for those whose income not more than per annum 6400/7200 in Rural and Urban areas- for lands less than – 2.5-acres/1 acre non irrigated and irrigated land respectively. (c) New strategy for rural lending – 1987 service area approach.

List Of Nationalised Banks In India :

  • Allahabad Bank

  • Andhra Bank

  • Bank of Baroda

  • Bank of India

  • Bank of Maharashtra

  • Canara Bank

  • Central Bank of India

  • Corporation Bank

  • Dena Bank

  • Indian Bank

  • Indian Overseas Bank

  • Oriental Bank of Commerce (OBC)

  • Punjab and Sind Bank

  • Punjab National Bank (PNB)

  • Syndicate Bank

  • UCO Bank

  • Union Bank of India

  • United Bank of India (UBI)

  • Vijaya Bank

6.Mid Term Monetary and credit policy 2008-2009

Reserve Bank of India hikes the repo rate under the Liquidity Adjustment Facility (LAF) by 25 basis points to 8.00%.
Reserve Bank of India credit policy announced on 29th April 2008, keeps repo rates unchanged but CRR is hiked by 25 bps to 8.25%
The Reserve Bank of India on 28th April 2008 released the document “Macroeconomic and Monetary Developments in 2007-08” to serve as a backdrop to the Annual Policy Statement for 2008-09 being announced on April 29, 2008
Reserve Bank of India hikes cash reserve ratio (CRR) by 50 bps to 8% in two stages

NOTE: RBI announces the credit policy twice a year —- Generally in April and in October. While in April it announces new policy initiatives, the October pronouncement is a review of the April policy. RBI has now decided to have quarterly reviews of monetary policy. Accordingly, First Quarter Review of the Annual Statement on Monetary Policy was issued in July 2005.

Highlights of the RBI Annual Policy Statement for the Year 2008-09 (29th April 2008)

Bank Rate, Reverse Repo Rate and Repo Rate kept unchanged.
High priority to price stability, well-anchored inflation expectations and orderly conditions in financial markets while sustaining the growth momentum.
Swift response on a continuous basis to evolving adverse international and domestic developments through both conventional and unconventional measures.
Emphasis on credit quality and credit delivery while pursuing financial inclusion.

Bank Rate, Reverse Repo Rate and Repo Rate kept unchanged.
Scheduled banks required to maintain CRR of 8.25 per cent with effect from the fortnight beginning May 24, 2008.
GDP growth projection for 2008-09 in the range of 8.0- 8.5 per cent.

Inflation to be brought down to around 5.5 per cent in 2008-09 with a preference for bringing it close to 5.0 per cent as soon as possible. Going forward, the resolve is to condition policy and perceptions for inflation in the range of 4.0-4.5 per cent so that an inflation rate of around 3.0 per cent becomes a medium-term objective.
M3 expansion to be moderated in the range of 16.5-17.0 per cent during 2008-09.

Deposits projected to increase by around 17.0 per cent or Rs.5,50,000 crore during 2008-09.
Adjusted non-food credit projected to increase by around 20.0 per cent during 2008-09.

Active demand management of liquidity through appropriate use of the CRR stipulations and open market operations (OMO) including the MSS and the LAF.
Introduction of STRIPS in Government securities by the end of 2008-09.
A clearing and settlement arrangement for OTC rupee derivatives proposed.

Domestic crude oil refining companies would be permitted to hedge their commodity price risk on overseas exchanges/markets on domestic purchase of crude oil and sale of petroleum products based on underlying contract.
Currency futures to be introduced in eligible exchanges in consultation with the SEBI; broad framework to be finalised by May 2008.
Indian companies to be allowed to invest overseas in energy and natural resources sectors.

Reserve Bank can be approached for capitalisation of export proceeds beyond the prescribed period of realisation.
Loans granted to RRBs for on-lending to agriculture and allied activities to be classified as indirect finance to agriculture.
The shortfall in lending to weaker sections would be taken into account for contribution to RIDF with effect from April 2009.
RRBs allowed to sell loan assets to other banks in excess of their prescribed priority sector exposure. The Reserve Bank to disseminate details of various charges levied by banks.

Asset classification norms for credit to infrastructure projects relaxed. The prudential guidelines for specific off-balance sheet exposures of banks to be reviewed.
Reserve Bank to carry out supervisory review of banks' exposure to the commodity sector.

The limit of bank loans to individuals for housing having lower risk weight of 50 per cent enhanced from Rs. 20 lakh to Rs. 30 lakh.
Consolidated supervision of financial conglomerates proposed. Working Group to be set up for a supervisory framework for SPVs/Trusts. Inter-departmental Group to review the existing regulatory and supervisory framework for overseas operations of Indian banks.

All transactions of Rs. one crore and above made mandatory to be routed through the electronic payment mechanism. Dispense with the extant eligibility norms for opening on-site ATMs for well-managed and financially sound UCBs. Regulations in respect of capital adequacy, liquidity and disclosure norms for systemically important NBFCs to be reviewed.

(7) IMD- operated by SBI for NRI – 5 years – different interest rates - loan available.
8.5C Formula for Banks: Challenge, competition, credit, customer and control prescribed by Ministry of Finance

10 . Scheduled Banks

(i) Paid up capital not less than 5 lakhs and activity will not affect interest of depositors.(ii)It has following facilities:-1.Eligible to get loan from RBI 2.Membership of clearing house 3. get rediscount in exchange bills
(b) Non Scheduled banks – not included in scheduled but to follow CRR conditions but no deposit with RBI and not eligible for loan from RBI.

9)Indian Banks Abroad: Bank of Baroda has the highest with 38 branches and SBI with 22 branches and Bank of India have 18 branches. In U.K. 19 branches and Fiji 9 branches.

10.New Banks in Private Sector:Created from 2000 based on Narasimham Committee – important are UTI, IIBL, ICIC, HDFC and IDBI. Amas Bank is the first private bank established Europe by Indian National in 1994 and Hinduja Group has established it at Geneva – Local Area Banks in private sector allowed by RBI in A.P, Maharashtra and Karnataka.
11. Co-operative Banks: It has 3 tier - state and district primary.
12. Regional Rural Banks (RRB)®1975 established under RRB Act 1976 Capital Source: Central Govt. 50% , State Govt. 15%, Sponsered Public Sector Commercial Bank 35%
1)Rural Development especially in Remote Rural Areas
2)loan to weaker section (concessional rate of interest)
3)mobilise rural savings
*83% of branches in Rural Areas (except Sikkim)
*since 1987, no new RRB has been opened (Kelkar committee) increased capital Rs.25 lakh to 1 Crore
1994-95 M.C.Bhandari Committee: to invest NON – SLR surplus fund in profitable areas
1995-96 –K.Basu Committee: Re-organisation of selected RRB’s
Narasimham committee recommended to give more freedom to RRB

13. Committees:

a.Narasimham committee 1991 financial reforms.
b.Goiporria Committee – 1990 – improvement of consumer service in banking
c.Janakiraman Committee – 1992 high-level enquiry on irregularities in securities.
d.J.P.C. Shares scam in 1992. 

(e) Chandrashekar Committee:
1997 transfer of shares.
(f) Pherwani Committee: 1991 established National Stock Exchange.
14.Banking Ombudsman – RBI introduced 1995 – 11 already appointed all except RRB included. Time limit one month.
15) Commercial Banks
A)Scheduled Banks :
1)Listed in 2nd scheduled of RBI Act 1934
2)Paid up capital not less than Rs.5lakhs
3)Any Activity of the bank will not adversely affect the interest of depositors.
B) Facilities:
1)Eligible for obtaining debts/Loans on BR from RBI
2)Membership of clearing house
3)Rediscount of first class exchange bills from RBI
C).Non-Scheduled Banks.:
1.Not listed in the 2nd Schedule
2)No. of NSBs are continuously declining
3)CRR condition must be followed
4)Not eligible for having loan from RBI But eligible in Emergency conditions.
D)Nationaliation of Banks : *Jan 1st 1949 - RBI, * 1955-SBI
* July 19th 1969 - 14 large commercial banks whose reserves were more than Rs.50 Crore.
*1980 April 15 – 6 Private Sector banks whose reserves were more than Rs.200 crore.
*1993 the New Bank of India (1980) merged with Punjab National Bank (1969)
*There are 19 banks which are nationalised

E)Co-operative Banks (State list)
State co-operatiave banks(SCB) – state level, apex co-operative bank of the stateCaptial Source: Refinance facility from RBI and shares & Loans 
Central Co-operative banks(CCB or DCB): District level, Two types
I.Co-operative Banking union: Loans only to PACS
II.Mixed central Co-op Bank : Loans to Both PACS & individuals
Primary agricultural credit Societies(PACS) – Village level

1. Provide short term loan(normally 1 year, Maximum 3years) 2.minimum 10 persons needed for establishment 3.No.of PACSdecreasing 4.Mobilise deposits and savings
16)Some important banking Institutions:
a) IDBI- 1964-To provide financial assistance to industrial enterprises and to promote institutions engaged in industrial development.
b) IFCI: 1948 Act -To arrange medium and long term credit for varuois industrial enterprises- 1993 corpn was converted into a company
c) ICICI: 1955-Developing medium and small industries –2002 merged with ICICI Bank
d) UTI: 1964- Biggest mutual fund- people’s savings and reinvestment. It started UTI bank in 1994 at Ahenmedabad.
Various Funds of UTI:
 1) India Fund-1986 (ii) India Growth Fund 1988 (iii) India Access Fund 1997 (iv) India Debt Fund 1997 (v)Master Value- Index Fund 2 in 1998.
e) EXIM bank: 1982- For financing, facilitating and promoting foreign trade in India.
f) NHB: 1988-wholly owned by RBI.Apex institution for housing finance,


1)BANKING 1M3 grew by 14 percent – last year 16.6%
2) BANK CREDIT sector increase of 20.4
3)M0GREW 14.1 – LAST YEAR 16.7%
4)Total bank credit increased by 14.2% 
5) RIDF_ setup1995 1996 maintained By NABARD _mainobjective to provide loans to state government 
6)Kisan credit cards 1998 99-operated through Co-operative bank commercial bank andRRB 414 lakhs cards iissue, 4.35 Crores 
7) Finance to self help gropu started in 1992-90% to women group 
8) AIFI-iicicimerged with ICICI Bank in march 2002-IDBI Limitedand IDBI Bank merged – working group on development financing headed by N.SATHASIVAM