# (Paper) Electrical Engineering : Optional Subject of Main Examination

**UPSC
: Electrical Engineering : Optional Subject of Main Examination
**

**Paper-I**

**Electrical Circuits-Theory
and Applications:** Circuit components; network graphs; KCL, KVL; circuit
analysis methods: nodal analysis, mesh analysis; basis network theorems and
applications; transient analysis: RL, RC and RLC circuits; sinusoidal steady
state analysis; resonant circuits and applications; coupled circuits and
applications; balanced 3-phase circuits. Two-port networks, driving point and
transfer functions; poles and zeros of network functions. Elements of network
synthesis. Filter-theory: design and applications. Active filters. Circuit
simulation: Input formats; methods of education formulation; solution of
equations; output formats; SPICE.

**Signals & Systems:**
Representation of continuous-time and discrete-time signals & systems; LTI
systems; convolution; impulse response; time domain analysis of LTI systems
based on convolution and differential/ difference equations. Fourier transform,
Laplace transform, Z-transform, Transfer function. Sampling and recovery of
signals DFT, FFT prossing of analog signals through discrete-time systems.

**E.M. Theory:**
Maxwells equations, wave propagation in bounded media. Boundary conditions,
reflection and refraction of plane waves. Transmission line: Distributed
parameter circuits, Travelling and standing waves, impedance matching, Smith
chart. Waveguides: parallel plane guide, TE, TM and TEM waves, rectangular and
cylindrical wave guides, resonators, Planar transmission lines; stripline,
microstripline.

**Analog Electronics: **Characteristics
and equivalent circuits (large and small-signal) of Diode, BJT, JFET and MOSFET.
Diode, circuits clipping, clamping, rectifier. Biasing and bias stability. FET
amplifiers. Current mirror; Amplifiers: single and multi-stage, differential,
operational, feedback and power. Analysis of amplifiers; frequency-response of
amplifiers. OPAMP circuits. Filters; sinusoidal oscillators: criterion for
oscillation; single transistor and OPAMP configurations. Function generators and
wave-shaping circuits. Power Supplies.

**Digital Electronics:**
Boolean algebra; minimisation of Boolean functions; logic gates; digital IC
families (DTL, TTL, ECL, MOS, CMOS). Combinational circuits: arithmetic circuits
code converters, multiplexers and decoders. Sequential circuits: latches and
flip-flops, counters and shift-registers.

Comparators, timers, multivibrators. Sample and hold circuits, ADCs and DACs.
Semiconductor memories. Logic implementation using programmable devices (ROM, PL
A, FPGA).

**Energy Conversion:**
Principles of electromechanical energy conversion: Torque and e.m.f. in rotating
machines. DC machines: characteristics and performance analysis; starting and
speed control of motors.

**Transformers**:
principles of operation and analysis; regulation, efficiency; 3-phase
transformers. 3-phase induction machines and synchronous machines:
Characteristics and performance analysis; speed control. Special machines:
Stepper motors, brushless DC motors, permanent magnet motors single-phase
motors; FHP.

**Power Electronics and
Electric Drives: **Semiconductor power devices: diode, transistor,
thyristor, triac, GTO and MOSFET-static characteristics and principles of
operation; triggering circuits; phase control rectifiers; bridge converters;
fully-con trolled and half-controlled; principles of thyristor choppers and
inverters; basic concepts of speed control of dc and a. c. motor drives.

Applications of variable-speed drives.

**Analog Communication:**
Random variables: continuous, discrete; probability, probability functions.
Statistical averages; probability models; Random signals and noise; white noise,
noise equivalent bandwidth; signal transmission with noise; single to noise
ratio. Linear CW modulation: Amplitude modulation: DSB, DSB-SC and SSB.
Modulators and Demodulators; Phase and frequency modulation: PM & FM
signals; narrowband FM; generation & detection of FM and PM, Deemphasis,
Pre-emphasis. CW modulation system: Superheterodyne receivers, AM receivers,
communication receivers, FM receivers, phase locked loop, SSB receiver. Signal
to noise ratio calculation for AM and FM receivers.

**Microwaves and Antenna:**
Electromagnetic radiation, Propagation of waves: ground waves, sky wave, space
wave, tropospheric scatter propagation. Extraterrestrial communications.
Antenna: Various types, gain, resistance, bandwidth, beam-width and
polarization, effect of ground. Antenna coupling; high frequency antennas;
microwave antennas; special purpose antennas. Microwave Services: Klystron,
magnetron, TWT, gun diodes, Impatt, Bipolar and FETs, Microwave integrated
circuits. Microwave measurements.

**PAPER- II**

**Control Systems:**
Elements of control systems; block-diagram representation; open-loop &
closed-loop systems; principles and applications of feedback. LTI systems:
time-domain and transform-do.nain analysis. Stability: Routh Hurwitz criterion,
root-loci, Nyquists criterion, Bode-plots, Design of lead-lad compensators.
Proportional, PI, PID controllers. State-variable representation and analysis of
control systems. Principles of discrete-control svstems.

**Electrical Engineering
Materials:** Electrical/electronic behaviour of materials: conductivity;
free-electrons and band theory; intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductor, p-n
junction; solar ceils, super-conductivity. Dielectric behaviour of materials;
polarization phenomena; piezo-electric phenomena. Magnetic materials; behaviour
and application. Photonic materials: refractive index, absorption and emission
of light, optical fibres, lasers and optoÂ¬electronic materials.

**Microprocessors and
microcomputers:** 8-bit microprocessor: architecture, -, CPU, module
design, memory interfacing, I/O, Peripheral controllers, Multiprocessing. IBMPC
architecture: overview, introduction to Dos, Advanced microprocessors.

**Measurement and
Instrumentation:** Error analysis; measurement of current, voltage,
power, energy, power-factor, resistance, inductance, capacitance and frequency;
bridge measurements. Electronic measuring instruments; multimeter, CRO, digital
voltmeter, frequency counter, Q-meter, spectrum-analyser, distortion-meter.
Transducers: thermocouple, thermistor, L.VDT, strain-gauge, piezo-electric
crystal. Use of transducers in measurements of non-electrical quantities.
Data-acquisition systems.

IC Technology: Overview of IC Technology. Unit-steps used in IC fabrication:
wafer cleaning, photo-lithography, wet and dry etching, oxidation, diffusion,
ion-implantation, CVD and LPCVD techniques for deposition of polysilicon,
silicon, silicon-nitride and silicon dioxide: metallisation and passivation.

**Power Systems:**
Analysis and Control: Steady-state performance of overhead transmission lines
and cables; principles of active and reactive power transfer and distribution;
per-unit quantities; bus admittance and impedance matrices; load flow; voltage
control and power factor correction; economic operation; symmetrical components,
analysis of symmetrical and unsymmetrical faults. Concept of system stability:
swing curves and equal area criterion. Static VAR system. Basic concepts of HVDC
transmission; FACTS.

**Computer control and
Automaton:** Introduction to energy control centres; various states of a
power system; SCADA systems and RTUs. Active power control; Speed control of
generators, tieline control, frequency control. Economic dispatch.

**Power system protection:**
Principle of overcurrent, differentional and distance protection. Concept of
solid state relays. Circuit brakers. Computer aided protection: Introduction;
line bus, generator, transformer protection; numeric i relays and application of
DSP to protection.

**Non-Conventional Energy
Sources and Energy Management:** Introduction to the energy problem;
difficulties with conventional energy sources. Wind-Energy: Basics of Wind
turbine aerodynamics; wind-energy conversion systems and their integration into
electrical grid. Solar-Energy: thermal conversion: photovoltaic conversion.
Wave-energy. Importance of Energy Management: Energy audit; energy economics:
discount rate, payback period, internal rate of return, life cycle costing.

**Digital Communication:**
Pulse code modulation (PCM), differentia! pulse code modulation (DPCM), delta
modulation (DM), Digital modulation and demodulation schemes: amplitude, phase
and frequency keying schemes (ASK, PSK, FSK). Error control coding: error
detection and correction, linear block codes, convolution codes. Information
measure and source coding. Data networks, 7-layer architecture.

Satellite communication, Radar and TV

**Satellite Communication:**
General overview and technical characteristics, earth station equipment,
satellite link design, CNR of Satellite system. Radar: Basic principles, Pulsed
systems: CW Doppler radar, FMCW radar, Phase array radars. Television Systems:
Television systems and standards, Black and White and Colour-TV transmission and
receiver systems.

**Fibre Optic System:**
Multiplexing: Time division multiplexing, Frequency Division multiplexing.
Optical properties of materials: Refractive index absorption and emission of
light, optical fibres, lasers and optoelectronic materials Fibre optic links.