(Paper) Electrical Engineering : Optional Subject of Main Examination

UPSC : Electrical Engineering : Optional Subject of Main Examination


Electrical Circuits-Theory and Applications: Circuit components; network graphs; KCL, KVL; circuit analysis methods: nodal analysis, mesh analysis; basis network theorems and applications; transient analysis: RL, RC and RLC circuits; sinusoidal steady state analysis; resonant circuits and applications; coupled circuits and applications; balanced 3-phase circuits. Two-port networks, driving point and transfer functions; poles and zeros of network functions. Elements of network synthesis. Filter-theory: design and applications. Active filters. Circuit simulation: Input formats; methods of education formulation; solution of equations; output formats; SPICE.

Signals & Systems: Representation of continuous-time and discrete-time signals & systems; LTI systems; convolution; impulse response; time domain analysis of LTI systems based on convolution and differential/ difference equations. Fourier transform, Laplace transform, Z-transform, Transfer function. Sampling and recovery of signals DFT, FFT prossing of analog signals through discrete-time systems.

E.M. Theory: Maxwells equations, wave propagation in bounded media. Boundary conditions, reflection and refraction of plane waves. Transmission line: Distributed parameter circuits, Travelling and standing waves, impedance matching, Smith chart. Waveguides: parallel plane guide, TE, TM and TEM waves, rectangular and cylindrical wave guides, resonators, Planar transmission lines; stripline, microstripline.

Analog Electronics: Characteristics and equivalent circuits (large and small-signal) of Diode, BJT, JFET and MOSFET. Diode, circuits clipping, clamping, rectifier. Biasing and bias stability. FET amplifiers. Current mirror; Amplifiers: single and multi-stage, differential, operational, feedback and power. Analysis of amplifiers; frequency-response of amplifiers. OPAMP circuits. Filters; sinusoidal oscillators: criterion for oscillation; single transistor and OPAMP configurations. Function generators and wave-shaping circuits. Power Supplies.

Digital Electronics: Boolean algebra; minimisation of Boolean functions; logic gates; digital IC families (DTL, TTL, ECL, MOS, CMOS). Combinational circuits: arithmetic circuits code converters, multiplexers and decoders. Sequential circuits: latches and flip-flops, counters and shift-registers.
Comparators, timers, multivibrators. Sample and hold circuits, ADCs and DACs. Semiconductor memories. Logic implementation using programmable devices (ROM, PL A, FPGA).

Energy Conversion: Principles of electromechanical energy conversion: Torque and e.m.f. in rotating machines. DC machines: characteristics and performance analysis; starting and speed control of motors.

Transformers: principles of operation and analysis; regulation, efficiency; 3-phase transformers. 3-phase induction machines and synchronous machines: Characteristics and performance analysis; speed control. Special machines: Stepper motors, brushless DC motors, permanent magnet motors single-phase motors; FHP.

Power Electronics and Electric Drives: Semiconductor power devices: diode, transistor, thyristor, triac, GTO and MOSFET-static characteristics and principles of operation; triggering circuits; phase control rectifiers; bridge converters; fully-con trolled and half-controlled; principles of thyristor choppers and inverters; basic concepts of speed control of dc and a. c. motor drives.
Applications of variable-speed drives.

Analog Communication: Random variables: continuous, discrete; probability, probability functions. Statistical averages; probability models; Random signals and noise; white noise, noise equivalent bandwidth; signal transmission with noise; single to noise ratio. Linear CW modulation: Amplitude modulation: DSB, DSB-SC and SSB. Modulators and Demodulators; Phase and frequency modulation: PM & FM signals; narrowband FM; generation & detection of FM and PM, Deemphasis, Pre-emphasis. CW modulation system: Superheterodyne receivers, AM receivers, communication receivers, FM receivers, phase locked loop, SSB receiver. Signal to noise ratio calculation for AM and FM receivers.

Microwaves and Antenna: Electromagnetic radiation, Propagation of waves: ground waves, sky wave, space wave, tropospheric scatter propagation. Extraterrestrial communications. Antenna: Various types, gain, resistance, bandwidth, beam-width and polarization, effect of ground. Antenna coupling; high frequency antennas; microwave antennas; special purpose antennas. Microwave Services: Klystron, magnetron, TWT, gun diodes, Impatt, Bipolar and FETs, Microwave integrated circuits. Microwave measurements.




Control Systems: Elements of control systems; block-diagram representation; open-loop & closed-loop systems; principles and applications of feedback. LTI systems: time-domain and transform-do.nain analysis. Stability: Routh Hurwitz criterion, root-loci, Nyquists criterion, Bode-plots, Design of lead-lad compensators. Proportional, PI, PID controllers. State-variable representation and analysis of control systems. Principles of discrete-control svstems.

Electrical Engineering Materials: Electrical/electronic behaviour of materials: conductivity; free-electrons and band theory; intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductor, p-n junction; solar ceils, super-conductivity. Dielectric behaviour of materials; polarization phenomena; piezo-electric phenomena. Magnetic materials; behaviour and application. Photonic materials: refractive index, absorption and emission of light, optical fibres, lasers and opto¬electronic materials.

Microprocessors and microcomputers: 8-bit microprocessor: architecture, -, CPU, module design, memory interfacing, I/O, Peripheral controllers, Multiprocessing. IBMPC architecture: overview, introduction to Dos, Advanced microprocessors.

Measurement and Instrumentation: Error analysis; measurement of current, voltage, power, energy, power-factor, resistance, inductance, capacitance and frequency; bridge measurements. Electronic measuring instruments; multimeter, CRO, digital voltmeter, frequency counter, Q-meter, spectrum-analyser, distortion-meter. Transducers: thermocouple, thermistor, L.VDT, strain-gauge, piezo-electric crystal. Use of transducers in measurements of non-electrical quantities. Data-acquisition systems.
IC Technology: Overview of IC Technology. Unit-steps used in IC fabrication: wafer cleaning, photo-lithography, wet and dry etching, oxidation, diffusion, ion-implantation, CVD and LPCVD techniques for deposition of polysilicon, silicon, silicon-nitride and silicon dioxide: metallisation and passivation.

Power Systems: Analysis and Control: Steady-state performance of overhead transmission lines and cables; principles of active and reactive power transfer and distribution; per-unit quantities; bus admittance and impedance matrices; load flow; voltage control and power factor correction; economic operation; symmetrical components, analysis of symmetrical and unsymmetrical faults. Concept of system stability: swing curves and equal area criterion. Static VAR system. Basic concepts of HVDC transmission; FACTS.

Computer control and Automaton: Introduction to energy control centres; various states of a power system; SCADA systems and RTUs. Active power control; Speed control of generators, tieline control, frequency control. Economic dispatch.

Power system protection: Principle of overcurrent, differentional and distance protection. Concept of solid state relays. Circuit brakers. Computer aided protection: Introduction; line bus, generator, transformer protection; numeric i relays and application of DSP to protection.

Non-Conventional Energy Sources and Energy Management: Introduction to the energy problem; difficulties with conventional energy sources. Wind-Energy: Basics of Wind turbine aerodynamics; wind-energy conversion systems and their integration into electrical grid. Solar-Energy: thermal conversion: photovoltaic conversion. Wave-energy. Importance of Energy Management: Energy audit; energy economics: discount rate, payback period, internal rate of return, life cycle costing.

Digital Communication: Pulse code modulation (PCM), differentia! pulse code modulation (DPCM), delta modulation (DM), Digital modulation and demodulation schemes: amplitude, phase and frequency keying schemes (ASK, PSK, FSK). Error control coding: error detection and correction, linear block codes, convolution codes. Information measure and source coding. Data networks, 7-layer architecture.
Satellite communication, Radar and TV

Satellite Communication: General overview and technical characteristics, earth station equipment, satellite link design, CNR of Satellite system. Radar: Basic principles, Pulsed systems: CW Doppler radar, FMCW radar, Phase array radars. Television Systems: Television systems and standards, Black and White and Colour-TV transmission and receiver systems.

Fibre Optic System: Multiplexing: Time division multiplexing, Frequency Division multiplexing. Optical properties of materials: Refractive index absorption and emission of light, optical fibres, lasers and optoelectronic materials Fibre optic links.