(Paper) Geography : Optional Subject of Main Examination

UPSC : Geography : Optional Subject of Main Examination

Paper- I


Section-A: Physical Geography

1) Geomorphology: Factors controlling Iandform development; endogenetic and exogenetic forces; origin and evolution of the earths crust; physical conditions of the earths interior; geosyndines; continental drift; isostasy; sea-floor spreading; plate tectonics; mountain building; volcanicity; earthquakes; concepts of geomorphic cycles; landforms associated with fluvial, arid, glacial, coastal and karst cycle; groundwater; Applied Geomorphology.

2) Climatology: Temperature and pressure belts of the world; heat budget of the earth; atmospheric circulation; planetary and local winds; monsoons and jetstreams; air masses and fronts; temperate and tropical cyclones; types and. distribution of precipitation; Koppens and Thornthwaites classification of world climate; hydrological cycle; climatic change.

3) Oceanography: Bottom topography of the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans; temperature and salinity of the oceans; ocean deposits; oven currents and tides; marine resources-biotic, mineral and energy resources; coral reefs; sea-level changes.

4) Biogeography: Genesis of soils; classification and distribution of soils; soil profile; soil erosion and conservation; factors influencing world distribution of plants and animals; problems of deforestation and conservation measures; social forestry, agro-forestry.

5) Environmental Geography: Human ecological adaptations; transformation of nature by man; environmental degradation and conservation; ecosystems and their management; global ecological
imbalances-problems of pollution; global warming, reduction in bio¬diversity and depletion of forests.


Section B

Human Geography

1) Perspectives in Human Geography: A real differentiation; regional synthesis; dichotomy and dualism; environmentalism; quantitative revolution and locational analysis; radical, behavioural, human and welfare approaches; cultural regions of the world; human development indicators.

2) Economic Geography: World economic development-measurement and problems; world resources and their distribution; energy crisis; the limits to growth; world agriculture-typology of agricultural regions; agricultural inputs and productivity; food and nutrition problems; famine-causes, effects and remedies; world industries-location patterns and problems; patterns of world trade.

3) Population and Settlement Geography: Growth and distribution of world population; demographic attributes; causes and consequences of migration; concepts of over-, under and optimum population; World population problems.

Types and patterns of rural settlements; hierarchy of urban settlements; concept of primate city and rank-size rule; functional classification of towns; sphere of urban influence; rural-urban fringe; satellite town; problems of urbanization.

4) Regional Planning: Concept of a region; types of regions and methods of regionalisation; growth centres and growth poles; regional imbalances; environmental issues in regional planning; planning for sustainable development.

5) Models, Theories and Laws in Human Geography: System analysis in Human Geography; Malthusian, Marxian and Demographic Transition models; Central Place theories of Chnstaller and Losch; Von Thunens model of agricultural location; Webers model of industrial location; Rostovs model of stages of growth. Heartland and Rimland theories; laws of international boundaries and frontiers.

Note: Candidates will be required to answer one compulsory map question pertinent to subjects covered by this paper.



Paper II

Geography of India

Sanction A.

1) Physical Setting: Space relationship of India with neighboring countries; structure and relief; drainage system and watersheds; physiographic regions; structure and relief; drainage system and watersheds; physiographic regions; mechanism of Indian monsoons; tropical cyclones and western disturbances; floods and droughts; climatic regions; natural vegetation, soil types and their distributions.

2) Resources: Land, surface and ground-water, energy, minerals and biotic resources, their distribution, utilisation and conservation; energy crisis.

3) Agriculture: Infrastructure-irrigation, seeds, fertilizers, power; institutional factors-land holdings, land tenure and land reforms; agricultural productivity, agricultural intensity, crop combination, land capability; agro-and social forestry; green revolution and its socio-economic and ecological implications; significance of dry farming; livestock resources and white revolution; blue revolution; agricultural regionalisation; agro-climatic zones.

4) Industry: Evolution of industries; locational factors of cotton, jute, iron and steel, fertilizer, paper, drugs and pharmaceutical, automobile and cottage industries; industrial complexes and industrial regionalisation; new industrial policy; multinationals and liberalisation.

5) Transport, Communication and Trade: Road, railway, waterway, airway, airway and pipeline networks and their complementary roles in regional development; growing importance of ports on national and foreign trade, trade balance; free trade and export promotion zones; developments in communication technology and its impact on economy and society.


Section B

1) Cultural Setting: Racial and ethnic diversities; major tribes, tribal areas and their problems; role of language, religion and tradition in the formation of cultural regions; growth, distribution and density of population; demographic attributes-sex-ratio, age structure, literacy rate, work-force, dependency ratio and longevity; migration (inter¬regional, intra-regional and international) and associated problems, population problems and policies.

2) Settlements: Types, patterns and morphology of rural settlements; urban development; census definition of urban areas; morphology of Indian cities; functional classification of Indian cities; conurbations and metropolitan regions; urban sprawl; slums and associated problems; town planning; problems of urbanization.

3) Regional Development and Planning: Experience of regional planning in India: Five Year Plans; integrated rural development programmes; panchayati raj and decentralised planning; command area development; watershed management; planning for backward area, desert droughtprone, hill and tribal area development; multi-level planning; geography and regional planning.

4) Political Aspects: Geographical basis of Indian federalism; state reorganisation; regional consciousness and national integration; international boundary of India and related issues; disputes on sharing of water resources; India and geopolitics of the India Ocean.

5) Contemporary Issues: Environmental hazards-landslides, earthquakes, floods and droughts, epidemics; issues related to environmental pollution; changes in patterns of land use; principles of environmental impact assessment and environmental management; population explosion and food security; environmental degradation; problems of agrarian and industrial unrest; regional disparities in economic development; concept of sustainable growth and development

Note: Candidates will be required to answer one compulsory map question pertinent to subjects covered by this paper.