Tips And Tricks
Changes in Syllabus of Geography Mains
view of the variety of changes being introduced for reforming the Civil
Services Examination, the UPSC introduced knowledge based changes in the
syllabus of Civil Services Examination.
Most of the changes that have been made reflect the underlying theme of
knowledge and analysis base As far as Geography is concerned, the changes
indicate the introduction of topics of contemporary relevance. India, as a
country has really opened up in the last one and a half decades, both in terms
of economy as well as culture. In this backdrop, it is pertinent that a Civil
Servant to-be gets a knowledge of those concepts. Hence, the new changes !
are these Changes ?
These changes are as follows along with their relevanceâ€”
● Fundamentals of Geomagnetism
● Recent view on mountain building
● Landscape Development
● Denudation chronology
● Channel Morphology
● Erosion surfaces
● Slope development
● Geohydrology, economic geology and environment
● Atmospheric stability and instability
● Weather and Climate
● Global Climate change & role and response of man in climatic
● Applied Climatology and Urban climate.
● Heat and Salt Budget
● Coral bleaching
● Law of the sea and marine pollution
● Soil degradation
● Wild life
● Major gene pool centres
● Human ecological adaptations
● Influence of man on ecology and environment
● Ecosystem conservation
● Environmental management
● Biodiversity and sustainable development
● Environmental policy
● Environmental hazards and remedial measures
● Environmental education and legislation
Perspectives in Human Geography
● Languages, religions and secularisation.
● Food securities.
Population and Settlement Geography
● Population theories, World Population policies, social wellbeing and
quality of life
● Population as social capital, Types and patterns of rural settlements
● Environmental issues in rural settlements.
● Urban morphology
● Remedies of urbanisation
● Sustainable development of cities.
● Regional development strategies.
Models, Theories and Laws in Human
● Perroux and Boudeville.
● Rainfall pattern Resources
● Forest and wild life resources and their conservation
● Soil types and their distributions.
● Cropping pattern
● Seri, apiculture & poultry
● Agro-ecological regions.
● Agro-based industries
● Industrial houses and complexes including public sector undertakings
● Special Economic zones
● Tourism including eco-tourism Transport, Communication and Trade
● Trade Policy
● Indian Space Programme
Historical Perspective of Indian Society
● Linguistic diversities
● Religious Minorities
● Cultural regions
● Health Indicators
● Remedies of urbanisation Regional Development and Planning
● Regional planning and development of Island territories
● Inter-state issues
● Cross border terrorism
● India's role in World affairs
● Geopolitics of South Asia
● Ecological issues
● Deforestation, desertification and soil erosion
● Environmental awareness
● Linkage of rivers
● Globalisation and Indian Economy
and their Significance
1. Geomagnetism : To
broaden the horizon of Geography, elements of Geology have been incorporated.
This makes the syllabus wide and diverse and at the same time more scientific.
And serious students do not need to be afraid of this, since "logic"
should be the order of the day. The topic requires an understanding of
principles of geomagnetism, causes of geomagnetism, geomagnetic polarity
reversal and the distribution of geomagnetic field, impact of geomagnetism on
climate and on earthâ€™s history.
2. Recent views on mountain
building is an extension of Plate Tectonics. The topic requires a
deep insight into the works of Miya Sharo, the Mantle Flowage Model and case
studies of Cyprus type of subduction and obduction of Irian Jaya.
3. Tsunamis : This
Japanese term has become very much known in the local parlance also and will
require the candidates to know the causes of Tsunamis, the generation of
seismic sea waves, the components of the Tsunamis warning systems and ways and
means to mitigate Tsunamis warning system.
4. The topic of landscape development requires an understanding of the models
of landscape development, i.e., Davis, Penck, King, Crickmay, Peltier, Cotton
and the Entropy Maximisation Model of Chorley, Shumm and Stanley.
chronology is another or alternative explanation of Cycle Concept It
also deals with morphometric analysis, basin morphometry, etc.
River morphology : The topic is about various types of river channels
and the river flow.
7. Erosion surfaces will require a study of peneplain, panplain, etchplain and
its evidences such as accordant interstream levels.
8. Slope analysis : It is
an extension of cycle of erosion concept
Geohydrology and economic geology a topic of Geology which will
contain Darcy's Law, various methods or mineral resource formation.
Atmospheric stability and instability will comprise the study of humidity, the
factors responsible for stability and the types of stability such as
orographic instability, convectional instability and frontal instability and
effects of instability such as the various forms of precipitation caused by
11. Applied climatology
will be a very scientific presentation of the role of climate in town
planning, aviation, tourism geography etc.
Urban climate is on the
various facets of urban heat island effects, Venturi effect, etc.
13. Waves : The dynamics
of generation, types and movement, another example of application of physics
14. Coral bleaching : A
detailed study of the morphology of corals and its association with
dinoflagellates i.e., znoxanthellae.
15. Law of the sea and marine
population : We are at a juncture where talks about biosphere
reserves and ecological problems are going on with alacrity. (viz. Sethu
Samudram Project). Hence, this topic seems to be significant in that regard.
In the same vein, a whole lot of topics like
16. Environment Policy, hazards and remedies including legislation is
absolutely relevant for a policymaker
of the future.
17. Wild life : A much
awaited topic to be inserted.
18. Gene pools : Extension
of the topic of Biodiversity.
19. Environmental hazards.
The topic in any case has been there. Only its management needs to be taken
proper care of.
20. Environmental education and
legislation : An indication of the multi dimensional nature of
21. Special economic zones :
This is yet another topic which has been and is continuing to be the hot topic
of today and on top of this, knowledge of agro-based industries and industrial
houses in general will help the ardent civil servant to dispense justice in a
22. Population geography :
Population Geography is much like Sociology with insertion of analytical
topics like social wellbeing, population as social capital and sustainable
development of cities.
23. The topic on languages, religion and secularisation will be dealing with
the concept of languages, their evolution, types, classification, distribution
and the recent trends in language and linguistic forms.
Religion will require the study of the origin and evolution of religion, its
diffusion, and its types and distribution, alongwith the concept of
neo-religion and its impact on lifestyle and culture.
24. Food securities deal with the concept of food insecurities and will be the
concept of food security and will be mostly dealing with the concept of food
security that has evolved during Indiaâ€™s representation on World Food Bank.
Although population theories have been existing in the syllabus as part of the
Models and Theories, but the topic has been respecified and it comprises not
only the Demographic Transition Theory but also the topics like
Epidemiological Transition, Mobility Transition, Social Capillarity plus all
the concepts associated with sustainability aspects of the growth of
Population policies require a case study of population problems and policies
of Romania, Brazil, China, Iran and Nigeria.
Social well-being and quality of life is totally an analytical and perspective
based topic where the requirements from the candidates will be the study of
HDI, GDI, GEM and case study of Brazil type, China type and Russian type
Population as a social capital is again a perspective based topic that will
comprise the study of the debate related to population as a problem or
population as a resource.
28. Environmental issues in rural settlement are partly associated with the
planning for rural settlement and partly the factors which have led to
evolution of rural settlements.
29. Urban Morphology is the reinsertion of the topic which was lifted out of
the syllabus in the year 2000, when the syllabus was changed. It is a
theoretical description of the arrangement of the various types of activities
in the cities as well as their application on a worldwide scale.
30. Remedies of urbanisation and sustainable development of the cities are
more less the same type of topics related to planning of the cities and
introduction of a variety of concepts for development, i.e., a long lasting
development. The topic will require a very good understanding of the
interrelationship of the psyche of the people, the sociological component as
well as increasing the energy efficiency of the cities.
31. Regional Development strategies will be dealing with the concepts of
multi-level planning, singlelevel planning, planning from above or below as
Stohr called it.
in the Perspective of Changed Syllabus
Earth's Dynamic Surface â€”By K. Siddhartha
Economic Geology â€”By Shackleton
Environmental Geology â€”By Valdiya
Atmosphere, Weather and Climateâ€” By K. Siddhartha
Climate History and Modern Manâ€”By Chorley
Science and Wonders of Atmosphereâ€” By Gedzelman
Bio and Environmental Geography
: A Geography of Life â€”By Dr. Thomas and K. Siddhartha
Environmental Geology â€”By Valdiya
Living in the Environment â€”By Miller
Urbanisation and Urban Systemâ€”By K. Siddhartha and S. Mukherjee
Urban Geographyâ€”By Herbert Thomas
These changes in the syllabus are beneficial to the aspirants
in a variety of waysâ€”
● As Geography is tending to become multi-disciplinary it would provide
more coverage for General Studies.
● A lot of unwanted competition will be weeded out; the nonserious
candidates can be weeded out by these changes.
● The subject will become much more exclusive
● The questions will become more predictable and straight forward.
changes are not at all difficult to handle. They can be tackled with Ã©lan if
thoughtful inputs go into the preparation.
Quality education to IAS aspirants will be of paramount importance in their