(Paper) IAS Mains Previous Years Paper : Agriculture (1991)

IAS Mains Previous Years Paper : Agriculture (1991)

1. Write short critical notes, in about 200 words each, on any three of the following.
(a) Nitrogen fixing biological systems.
(b) Alternate land use systems for rainfed land.
(c) Herbicide residues
(d) Bench terracing.

2. Fertilizer is an expensive input but is not efficiently used. Detail the strategy for optiomal use of fertilizers for maximisation by small farmer.

3. What constitutes improved management technology for increasing chick-pea production in deep black soils(Vertisol)?

4. There is vast untapped potential for raising rice yields in Eastern India. Discuss nine major measures for increasing productivity of rice in the-region.

5. Write short critical notes, in about 200 words each, on any three of the following:
(a) Drip irrigation.
(b) Co J-64 and Co C-671.
(c) Cost ratios in farm business.
(d) Extension Programme Planning.

6. Discuss, the ten major approaches for boosting foodgrain production in rainfed lands.

7. Mention the important varieties and hybrids in extra-long staple cotton and indicate the contribution of each.

8. What are the various types of farm budgeting? What methods of budgeting is recommended when change in activity under study does not affect farm organization vitally and why?

1. Answer any three of the following in about 200 words each:
(a) Define the different categories of seed recognized by the Seed Certification Agency. Describe how the purity of seed is maintained both at production level and afterwards. What are the steps involved in the seed certification process?
(b) Describe how introduction of new plant type in rice and wheat has contributed to Indian agriculture during the last twenty-five years. Should plant introduction be institutionalized or left to individual enterprize? Give specific reasons and examples in support of your view.
(c) State the procedure usually followed for the production of hybried seed of Jowar in large quantities. Both Cotton and Jawar are often cross- pollinated crops. Yet the breeding methodology differ in each case. How and why?
(d) Write a short note on the National Seed Corporation in India brining out its objective and activities. State the relation of National Seed Corporation and the State. Seed Corporation and various related agencies.

2. (a) Distinguish between sex-linked, sex-limited and sex-influenced characters. Give suitable examples.
(b) What are the causes for male sterility? Briefly discuss .the importance of male-sterility in the improvement of crop plants.
(c) Where did maize originate? Why is it considered as a very efficient crop? How is hybrid maize produced?
(d) What is the 'genetic code? What is its significance?

3. Distinguish between the following:
(a) Active absorption and Passive absorption
(b) Cytochrome and Chlorophyll
(c) Constitutive and Inducible enzymes
(d) Genotype and Phenotype
(e) Biparental cross and Black cross

4. (a) Why is Hatch-Slack pathway of photosynthesis considered efficient? Describe the pathway.
(b) Explain the causes for the lack of photorespiration in C4 plants. Critically calculate the various attempts in regulate photo espiration in C3 plants.
(c) What is special dominance? Of what practical value is the knowledge of apical dominance?
(d) What are the similarities and dissimilarities between auxins and gibberellins?

5. Answer any three of the following in about 200 words each:
(a) What are mycoplasma? How do they differ from bacteria and virsues? How are they identified in plant tissues? Name a plant disease attributed to be caused by mycoplasma.
(b) Why are the post-harvest diseases important? Explain with reference to suitable examples. What factors influence the occurrence of such diseases, and how are they controlled?
(c) Name one disease each caused by a (i) Virus, (ii) bacterium, (iii) fungus and (iv) phosiological deficiency. Describe the symptoms caused by each in a selected crop. Explain the nature and extent of the damage caused by the disease and control measures in each case.
(d) Genetics and breeding for resistance to bacterial leaf bright and brown plant hopper in rice. Discuss.

6. (a) What do you understand by biological control of pests ? Illustrate your answer with suitable examples from India and abroad.
(b) Describe the preventive pressures for the control of stored grain pests in India. Discuss in detail the storage pests of wheat in our country.
(c) State the important pests of the following crops and give their control measures:
(i) Cotton
(ii) Groundnut
(iii) Gram
(iv) Mango

7. (a) Where did mango originate? Name three important problems of mango cultivation in India. What are remedial measures?
(b) Give a critical resume of the current states of our knowledge on growth regulators in the production, harvesting and preservation of horticultural crops.
(c) Give the varieties recommended, package of practices including plant production measures and the average yield per hectare for (i) Grapes, (ii) Tomato.
(d) What are the major problems of production of seed potato in India? How are the problems tackled? Give details.

8. (a) Analyse the main causes of low productivity in Indian Agriculture. Examine the role of new technology in improving agricultural productivity.
(b) What has been the impact of Green Revolution in India on dietary habits and food consumption trends in our country?
(c) What are modem agricultural inputs and to what extent improvement in them helps improve agricultural productivity in India?
(d) Discuss the agricultural price policy of the Government of India. Would you suggest any changes in it in view of the debate on the terms of trade between the agriculture and the industries?