IAS Mains Previous Years Paper : Agriculture (1991)
PAPER - I
1. Write short critical notes, in about 200 words each, on any three of the following.
(a) Nitrogen fixing biological systems.
(b) Alternate land use systems for rainfed land.
(c) Herbicide residues
(d) Bench terracing.
2. Fertilizer is an expensive input but is not efficiently used. Detail the strategy for optiomal use of
fertilizers for maximisation by small farmer.
3. What constitutes improved management technology for increasing chick-pea production in deep
4. There is vast untapped potential for raising rice yields in Eastern India. Discuss nine major measures
for increasing productivity of rice in the-region.
5. Write short critical notes, in about 200 words each, on any three of the following:
(a) Drip irrigation.
(b) Co J-64 and Co C-671.
(c) Cost ratios in farm business.
(d) Extension Programme Planning.
6. Discuss, the ten major approaches for boosting foodgrain production in rainfed lands.
7. Mention the important varieties and hybrids in extra-long staple cotton and indicate the contribution
8. What are the various types of farm budgeting? What methods of budgeting is recommended when
change in activity under study does not affect farm organization vitally and why?
PAPER - II
1. Answer any three of the following in about 200 words each:
(a) Define the different categories of seed recognized by the Seed Certification Agency. Describe
how the purity of seed is maintained both at production level and afterwards. What are the
steps involved in the seed certification process?
(b) Describe how introduction of new plant type in rice and wheat has contributed to Indian
agriculture during the last twenty-five years. Should plant introduction be institutionalized or
left to individual enterprize? Give specific reasons and examples in support of your view.
(c) State the procedure usually followed for the production of hybried seed of Jowar in large
quantities. Both Cotton and Jawar are often cross- pollinated crops. Yet the breeding
methodology differ in each case. How and why?
(d) Write a short note on the National Seed Corporation in India brining out its objective and
activities. State the relation of National Seed Corporation and the State. Seed Corporation
and various related agencies.
2. (a) Distinguish between sex-linked, sex-limited and sex-influenced characters. Give suitable
(b) What are the causes for male sterility? Briefly discuss .the importance of male-sterility in the
improvement of crop plants.
(c) Where did maize originate? Why is it considered as a very efficient crop? How is hybrid
(d) What is the 'genetic code? What is its significance?
3. Distinguish between the following:
(a) Active absorption and Passive absorption
(b) Cytochrome and Chlorophyll
(c) Constitutive and Inducible enzymes
(d) Genotype and Phenotype
(e) Biparental cross and Black cross
4. (a) Why is Hatch-Slack pathway of photosynthesis considered efficient? Describe the pathway.
(b) Explain the causes for the lack of photorespiration in C4 plants. Critically calculate the
various attempts in regulate photo espiration in C3 plants.
(c) What is special dominance? Of what practical value is the knowledge of apical dominance?
(d) What are the similarities and dissimilarities between auxins and gibberellins?
5. Answer any three of the following in about 200 words each:
(a) What are mycoplasma? How do they differ from bacteria and virsues? How are they
identified in plant tissues? Name a plant disease attributed to be caused by
(b) Why are the post-harvest diseases important? Explain with reference to suitable examples.
What factors influence the occurrence of such diseases, and how are they controlled?
(c) Name one disease each caused by a (i) Virus, (ii) bacterium, (iii) fungus and (iv)
phosiological deficiency. Describe the symptoms caused by each in a selected crop. Explain
the nature and extent of the damage caused by the disease and control measures in each
(d) Genetics and breeding for resistance to bacterial leaf bright and brown plant hopper in rice.
6. (a) What do you understand by biological control of pests ? Illustrate your answer with suitable
examples from India and abroad.
(b) Describe the preventive pressures for the control of stored grain pests in India. Discuss in
detail the storage pests of wheat in our country.
(c) State the important pests of the following crops and give their control measures:
7. (a) Where did mango originate? Name three important problems of mango cultivation in India.
What are remedial measures?
(b) Give a critical resume of the current states of our knowledge on growth regulators in the
production, harvesting and preservation of horticultural crops.
(c) Give the varieties recommended, package of practices including plant production measures
and the average yield per hectare for (i) Grapes, (ii) Tomato.
(d) What are the major problems of production of seed potato in India? How are the problems
tackled? Give details.
8. (a) Analyse the main causes of low productivity in Indian Agriculture. Examine the role of new
technology in improving agricultural productivity.
(b) What has been the impact of Green Revolution in India on dietary habits and food
consumption trends in our country?
(c) What are modem agricultural inputs and to what extent improvement in them helps improve
agricultural productivity in India?
(d) Discuss the agricultural price policy of the Government of India. Would you suggest any
changes in it in view of the debate on the terms of trade between the agriculture and the