(Paper) IAS Mains Previous Years Paper : Psychology (1988)

IAS Mains Previous Years Paper : Psychology (1988)


1. Answer any three of the following in about 200 words each:
(a) Why is it difficult to unravel the relative importance of maturation and training in most human performance? Give concrete illustrations.
(b) Explain and illustrate the terms stimulus generalization, response generalization and mediated generalization. Does the phenomenon of stimulus generalization represent a failure of association? Give experimental evidence.
(c) How is creativity related to intelligence? Discuss the earlier and contemporary trends of research on creativity.
(d) Discuss the nature of perceptual organization. Show whether it is innately determined or acquired. Cite experimental evidence in support of your answer.

2. How far would you justify the view that contemporary psychology is by no means a unified field of study ? Give your answer with reference to tough minded approach based on hard date as opposed to tender minded approach based on rational principles.

3. How does discrimination learning differ from learning by instrumental conditio-ning ? Give your comments with relevant experimental evidences on the associative as opposed to relational type of explanations of discrimination learning.

4. Analyse the process of early socialization. Discuss the effects of exclusive mothering and substitute care on the child's later personality development.

5. Answer any three of the following in about 200 words each:
(a) What are the various problems of measuring intelligence by means of intelligence tests? Give suitable illustrations.
(b) Discuss the implications of the Organizational Man and the Humanistic Man Models for behaviour change.
(c) Give your comments on prediction of behaviour from the knowledge of attitudes. Discuss cognitive dissonance approach and assimilation contrast approach to attitude change.
(d) Analyse the process of communication and discuss the various strategies for making communication more effective.

6. Compare and contrast All port's trait theory and Freud's psychoanalytic theory with respect to their concept of personality, assumptions concerning human nature, empirical validation and application.

7. Discuss the nature and complexities of altered states of consciousness which are produced by hypnosis, drug Use and meditation.

8. What are the characteristics of motivated behaviour? Give a critical account of Drive theory and Need hierarchy theory of motivation.

1. Attempt any three of the following (each answer should not exceed 200 words):
(a) Elucidating the concept of change-proneness, indicate its main psychological correlates.
(b) Effectiveness of participatory management style is conditioned by the socio cultural context Comment.
(c) Behaviour therapy is rooted in some basic principles of (earning. Explain.
(d) Just putting the test questions in an objective form does not necessarily render the test scientific. Comment, and elucidate the characteristics of a good psychological test.

2. Distinguish neurotic from psychotic disorders, and outline the common symptoms that go with depression.

3. Describe in concrete terms the interaction process analysis and discuss its utility in a classroom situation.

4. Any step to effect change is, beset with the phenomenon of resistance. Comment and discuss the psychological factors that are responsible for 'resistance' to change.

5. Attempt any three of the following (each answer should not exceed 200 words):
(a) Elucidate the concepts of prolonged deprivation and relative deprivation.
(b) Pathology of prejudice is but a small part of the story of prejudice. Comment
(c) Discuss the psychological factors that make communication in an organization effective.
(d) Elucidate the psychological components of the entrepreneur syndrome.

6. Referring to different studies, discuss the role of achievement motivation in economic development. In this context, discuss whether agro-economic development is associated with a distinct pattern of motivation.

7. In the context of relevant studies, discuss the psychological correlates of socio-cultural disadvantage.

8. Elucidating the concept of stress, discuss its psychological consequences. In this context, outline the role of some socio-psychological factors that help in the management of stress.