(Paper) IAS Mains Previous Years Paper : Psychology (1992)

IAS Mains Previous Years Paper : Psychology (1992)

1. Answer any three of the following in about 200 words each:
(a) Compare & contrast - armchair theorising and experiment, armchair theorising and naturalistic observation.
(b) Give everyday example of instrumental reward conditioning and instrumental eversive conditioning.
(c) Why is it incorrect to say that homeostasis is a single motivational factor? How many separate factors are included in it?
(d) Describe the effective methods of communication giving suitable examples.

2. What does the reliability coefficient of a test indicate? Describe the approaches to the estimation of reliability.

3. Citing relevant experiments elucidate facilitative as well as fixating effects of set in problem-solving.

4. Attempt a description of the characteristics of the gifted and indicate how those could be identified and developed.

5. Answer any three of the following in about 200 words each:
(a) What is national character? Explain the role of heredity in developing national character.
(b) Describe the implications of the different models for behavioural changes.
(c) Explain meditation and how far it is useful today for therapeutic purpose.
(d) Critically evaluate Tolman's views on reward expectancy, place learning and latent learning.

6. Describe the cognitive, the effective and the behavioural components of attitudes and state their effect on behaviour.

7. Write briefly on the nature and development of intelligence and on the factors that influence the development of intelligence.

8. What are the strengths and weaknesses of a type approach' to the study of personality? Illustrate with reference to Jung's theory and to Sheldon's.

1. Answer any three questions of the following (Each answer should not exceed 200 words):
(a) What do you understand by retarded solution? Suggest measures for their relevant training.
(b) What is meant by communication? Suggest suitable measures to bring about effective communication.
(c) Examine the nature of achievement motivation and discuss how people are to be motivated. .
(d) Examine the actiology and symptoms of the socially deviant and suggest ways for their rehabilitation.

2. Examine the characteristics of good psychological test and discuss its limitation as raised by the critics.

3. Victims of anxieties and depressions do present a common sight to everyday life. Point out the difference in them and elucidate their actiology and the remedial measures to be adopted to treat these two maladies.

4. Whom would you label as the disadvantaged groups? Examine with illustrations the psychological consequences of disadvantages and suggest in brief, measures to educate them.

5. Answer any three of the following (Each answer should not exceed 200 words):
(a) What do you understand by psychological tests? Examine the principle of their classification under different heads.
(b) State with examples how neurotic cases can be differentiated from psychoneurotic cases.
(c) Examine the complexity inherent in the change process and discuss how resistance to change can be reduced.
(d) What is meant by interaction process analysis? State how it helps in classifying major categories of communication.

6. Render a psychological definition of juvenile delinquency and discuss in what way it differs from crime.

7. Cite some common stresses in our daily life and examine the effects of psychological efforts to contain them, ending either in success or failure.

8. Examine the nature and source of prejudice, and also the different ways of their manifestation. Give relevant illustrations.