IFS : IFS Examination Plan
Total number of questions in the question papers of optional subjects will be
eight. All questions will carry equal marks. Each paper will be divided into two
parts, viz. Part A and Part B, each part containing four questions. Out of eight
questions, five questions are to be attempted. One question in each part will be
compulsory. Candidates will be required to answer three more questions out of
the remaining six questions, taking at least one question from each Part. In
this way, at least two questions will be attempted from each Part i.e. one
compulsory question plus one more.
Ecology and its relevance to man, natural resources, their sustainable
management and conservation. Physical and social environment as factors of crop
distribution and production. Climatic elements as factors of crop growth, impact
of changing environment on cropping pattern as indicators of environments.
Environmental pollution and associated hazards to crops, animals, and humans.
Cropping pattern in different agro-climatic zones of the country. Impact of
high-yielding and short-duration varieties on shifts in cropping pattern.
Concepts of multiple cropping, multistorey, relay and inter-cropping, and their
importance in relation to food production. Package of practices for production
of important cereals, pulses, oil seeds, fibres, sugar, commercial and fodder
crops grown during Kharif and Rabi seasons in different regions of the country.
Important features, scope and propagation of various types of forestry
plantations such as extension, social forestry, agro-forestry, and natural
Weeds, their characteristics, dissemination and association with various
crops; their multiplication; cultural, biological and chemical control of weeds.
Soil-physical, chemical and biological properties. Processes and factors of
soil formation. Modern classification of Indian soils, Mineral and organic
constituents of soils and their role in maintaining soil productivity. Essential
plant nutrients and other beneficial elements in soils and plants. Principles of
soil fertility and its evaluation for judicious fertiliser use, integrated
nutrient management. Losses of nitrogen in soil, nitrogen-use efficiency in
submerged rice soils, nitrogen fixation in soils. Fixation of phosphorus and
potassium in soils and the scope for their efficient use. Problem soils and
their reclamation methods.
Soil conservation planning on watershed basis. Erosion and run-off management
in hilly, foot hills, and valley lands; processes and factors affecting them.
Dryland agriculture and its problems. Technology of stabilising agriculture
production in rainfed agriculture area.
Water-use efficiency in relation to crop production, criteria for scheduling
irrigations, ways and means of reducing run-off losses of irrigation water. Drip
and sprinkler irrigation. Drainage of water-logged soils, quality of irrigation
water, effect of industrial effluents on soil and water pollution.
Farm management, scope, important and characteristics, farm planning. Optimum
resources use and budgeting. Economics of different types of farming systems.
Marketing and pricing of agricultural inputs and outputs, price fluctuations
and their cost; role of co-operatives in agricultural economy; types and systems
of farming and factors affecting them.
Agricultural extension, its importance and role, methods of evaluation of
extension programmes, socio-economic survey and status of big, small, and
marginal farmers and landless agricultural labourers; farm mechanization and its
role in agricultural productioin and rural employment. Training programmes for
extension workers; lab-to-land programmes.
Cell Theory, cell structure, cell organelles and their function, cell
division, nucleic acids-structure and function, gene structure and function.
Laws of heredity, their significance in plant breeding. Chromosome structure,
chromosomal aberrations, linkage and cross-over, and their significance in
recombination breeding. Polyploidy, euploid and an euploids. Mutation-micro and
macro-and their role in crop improvement. Variation, components of variation.
Heritability, sterility and incompatibility, classification and their
application in crop improvement. Cytoplasmic inheritance, sex-linked,
sex-influenced and sex-limited characters.
History of plant breeding. Modes of reproduction, selfing and crossing
techniques. Origin and evolution of crop plants, centre of origin, law of
homologous series, crop genetic resources-conservation and utilization.
Application of principles of plant breeding to the improvement of major field
crops. Pure-line selection, pedigree, mass and recurrent selections, combining
ability, its significance in plant breeding. Hybrid vigour and its exploitation,
backcross method of breeding, breeding for disease and pest resistance, role of
interspecific and intergeneric hybridization. Role of biotechnology in plant
breeding. Improved varieties, hybrids, composites of various crop plants.
Seed technology, its importance. Different kinds of seeds and their seed
production and processing techniques. Role of public and private sectors in seed
production, processing and marketing in India .
Physiology and its significance in agriculture. Imbibition, surface tension,
diffusion and osmosis. Absorption and translocation of water, transpiration and
Enzymes and plant pigments; photosynthesis-modern concepts and factors
affecting the process, aerobic and nonaerobic respiration; C, C and CAM
mechanisms. Carbohydrate, protein and fat metabolism.
Growth and development; photoperiodism and vernalization. Auxins, hormones,
and other plant regulators and their mechanism of action and importance in
agriculture. Physiology of seed development and germination; dormancy.
Climatic requirements and cultivation of major fruits, plants, vegetable
crops and flower plants; the package of practices and their scientific basis.
Handling and marketing problems of fruit and vegetables. Principal methods of
preservation of important fruits and vegetable products, processing techniques
and equipment. Role of fruits and vegetables in human nutriton. Raising of
ornamental plants, and design and layout of lawns and gardens.
Diseases and pests of field vegetables, orchard and plantation crops of India
. Causes and classification of plant pests and diseases. Principles of control
of plant pests and diseases Biological control of pests and diseases. Integrated
pest and disease management. Epidemiology and forecasting.
Pesticides, their formulations and modes of action. Compatibility with
rhizobial inoculants. Microbial toxins.
Storage pests and diseases of cereals and pulses, and their control.
Food production and consumption trends in India . National and international
food policies. Production, procurement, distribution and processing constraints.
Relation of food production to national dietary pattern, major deficiencies of
calorie and protein.
1. Soil and Water Conservation : Scope of soil and water conservation.
Mechanics and types of erosion, their causes. Rainfall, runoff and sedimentation
relationships and their measurement. Soil erosion control measures - biological
and engineering including stream bank protection-vegetative barriers, contour
bunds, contour trenches, contour stone walls, contour ditches, terraces, outlets
and grassed waterwyas. Gully control structures - temporary and permanent -
design of permanent soil conservation structures such as chute, drop and drop
inlet spillways. Design of farm ponds and percolation ponds. Principles of flood
control-flood routing. Watershed Management - investigation, planning and
implementation - selection of priority areas and water shed work plan, water
harvesting and moisture conservation. Land development - levelling, estimation
of earth volumes and costing. Wind Erosion process - design fo shelter belts and
wind brakes and their management. Forest (Conservation) Act,
2. Aerial Photography and Remote Sensing : Basic characteristics of
photographic images, interpretation keys, equipment for interpretation, imagery
interpretation for land use, geology, soil and forestry.
Remote sensing - merits and demerits of conventional and remote sensing
approaches. Types of satellite images, fundamentals of satellite image
interpretation, teachniques of visual and digital interpretations for soil,
water and land use management. Use of GIS in planning and development of
watersheds, forests including forest cover, water resources etc.
3. Irrigation and Drainage : Sources of water for irrigation. Planning and
design of minor irrigation projects. Techniques of measuring soil moisture -
laboratory and in situ, Soil-water plant relationships. Water requirement of
crops. Planning conjunctive use of surface and ground weater. Measurement of
irrigation water, measuring devices - orifices, weirs and flumes. Methods of
irrigation - surface, sprinkler and drip, fertigation. Irrigation efficiencies
and their estimation. Design and construction of canals, field channels,
underground pipelines, head-gates, diversion boxes and structures for road
Occurrence of ground water, hydraulics of wells, types of wells (tube wells
and open wells) and their construction. Well development and testing.
Pumps-types, selection and installation. Rehabilitation of sick and failed
Drainage causes of waterlogging and salt problem. Methods of drainageÃ¢â‚¬â€
drainage of irrigated and unirrigated lands, design of surface, sub-surface and
vertical drainage systems. Improvement and utilization of poor quality water.
Reclamation of saline and alkali soils. Economics of irrigation and drainage
systems. Use of waste water for irrigation Ã¢â‚¬â€ standards of waste water for
sustained irrigation, feasibility and economics.
4. Agricultural Structures : Site selection, design and construction of
farmstead - farm house, cattle shed, dairy bam, poultry shed, hog housing,
machinery and implement shed, storage structures for food grains, feed and
forage. Design and consturction of fences and farm roads. Structures for plant
environment - green houses, poly houses and shade houses. Common building
materials used in construction - timber, brick, stone, tiles, concrete etc and
their properties. Water supply, drainage and sanitation system.
1. Farm Power and Machinery : Agricultural mechanization and its scope.
Sources of farm power - animate and electro-mechanical. Thermodynamics,
construction and working of internal combustion engines. Fuel, ignition,
lubrication, cooling and governing system of IC engines. Different types of
tractors and power tillers. Power tramsmission, ground drive, power take off
(p.t.o.) and control systems. Operation and maintenance of farm machinery for
primary and secondary tillage. Traction theory. Sowing transplanting and
interculture implements and tools. Plant protection equipment - spraying and
dusting. Harvesting, threshing and combining equipment. Machinery for earth
moving and land development - methods and cost estimation. Ergonomics of
man-machine system. Machinery for horticulture and agro-forestry, feeds and
forages. Haulage of agricultural and forest produce.
2. Agro-energy : Energy requirements of agricultural operations and
agro-processing. Selection, installation, safety and maintenance of electric
motors for agricultural applications. Solar (thermal and photovoltoic), wind and
bio-gas energy and their utilization in agriculture. Gasification of biomass for
running IC engines and for electric power generation. Energy efficient cooking
stoves and alternate cooking fuels. Distribution of electricity for agricultural
and agro-industrial applications.
3. Agricultural Process Engineering : Post harvest technology of crops and
its scope. Engineering properties of agricultural produces and by-products. Unit
operations - clearning grading, size reduction, densification, concentration,
drying/dehydration, evaporation, filtration, freezing and packaging of
agricultural produces and by-products. Material handling equipment - belt and
screw conveyors, bucket elevators, their capacity and power requirement.
Processing of milk and dairy products - homogenization, cream separation,
pasteurization, sterilization, spray and roller drying, butter making, ice
cream, cheese and shrikhand manufacture. Waste and by-product utilization - rice
husk, rice bran, sugarcane bagasse, plant residues and coir pith.
4. Instrumentation and computer applications in Agricultural Engineering :
Electronic devices and their characteristics - rectifiers, amplifiers,
oscillators, multivibrators. Digital circuits Ã¢â‚¬â€ sequential and
combinational system. Application of microprocessors in data acquisition and
control of agricultural engineering processes- measurement systems for level,
flow, strain, force, torque, power, pressure, vaccum and temperature. Computers
Ã¢â‚¬â€ introduction, input/output devices, central processing unit, memory
devices, operating systems, processors, keyboards and printers. Algorithms,
flowchart specification, programme translation and problem analysis in
Agricultural Engineering. Multimedia and Audio-Visual aids.
Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Science
1. Animal Nutrition-Energy sources, energy, metabolism and requirements for
maintenance and production of milk, meat, eggs and wool. Evaluation of feeds as
sources of energy.
1.1. Trends in protein nutriton: sources of protein metabolism and synthesis,
protein quantity and quality in relation to requirements. Energy protein ratios
1.2. Minerals in animal diet : Sources, functions, requirements and their
relationship of the basic minerals nutrients including trace elements.
1.3. Vitamins, Hormones and Growth Stimulating, substances : Sources,
functions, requirements and inter-relationship with minerlas.
1.4. Advances in Ruminant Nutrition-Dairy Cattle: Nutrients and their
metabolism with reference to milk production and its composition. Nutrient
requirements for calves, heifers, dry and milking cows and buffaloes.
Limitations of various feeding systems.
1.5 Advances in Non-Rumiant Nutrition-Poultry-Nutrients and their metabolism
with reference to poultry, meat and egg production, Nutrients requirements and
feed formulation and broilers at different ages.
1.6 Advances in Non-Ruminant Nutrition-Swine-Nutrients and their metabolism
with special reference to growth and quality of meat production, Nutrient
requirement and feed formulation for baby-growing and finishing pigs.
1.7. Advances in Applied Animal Nutrition-A critical review and evalaution of
feeding experiments, digestibility and balance studies. Feeding standards and
measures of food energy. Nutrition requirements for growth, maintenance and
production. Balanced rations.
2. Animal Physiology :
2.1 Growth and Animal Production :-Prenatal and postnatal growth, maturation,
growth curves, measures of growth, factors affecting growth, conformation, body
composition, meat quality.
2.2 Milk Production and Reproduction and Digestion : Current status of
hormonal control of mammary development, milk secretion and milk ejection. Male
and Female reproduction organ, their components and function. Digestive organs
and their functions.
2.3 Environmental Physiology : Physiological relations and their regulation;
mechanisms of adaption, environmental factors and regulatory mechanism involved
in animal behaviour, methods of controlling climatic stress.
2.4 Semen quality : Preservation and Artificial Insemination-Components of
semen, composition of spermatozoe, chemical and physical properties of
ejaculated semen, factors affecting semen in vivo and in vitro. Factors
affecting semen production and quality preservation, composition of diluents,
sperm concentration, transport of diluted semen. Deep Freezing techniques in
cows, sheep and goats, swine and poultry.
Detection of oestrus and time of insemination for better conception.
3. Livestock Production and Management :
3.1 Commercial Dairy Farming-Comparison of dairy farming in India with
advanced countries. Dairying under fixed farming and as a specialised farming,
economic dairy farming, Starting of a dairy farm. Capital and land requirement,
organisation of the dairy farm.
Procurement of goods; opportunities in dairy farming, factors determining the
efficiency of dairy animal, Herd recording, budgeting, cost of milk production;
pricing policy; Personnel Management. Developing Practical and Economic ration
for dairy cattle; supply of greens throughout the year, field and fodder
requirements of Dairy Farm, Feeding regimes for day and young stock and bulls,
heifers and breeding animals, new trends in feeding young and adult stock;
3.2. Commercial meat, egg and wool production: Development of practical and
economic rations for sheep, goats, pigs, rabbits and poultry. Supply of greens,
fodder, feeding regimens for young and mature stock. New trends in enhancing
production and management. Capital and land requirements and socio-economic
3.3. Feeding and management of animals under drought, flood and other natural
4. Genetics and Animal Breeding : Mitosis and Meiosis; Mendelian inheritance;
deviations to Mendelian genetics; Expression of genes; Linkage and crossing
over; Sex determination, sex influenced and sex limited characters; Blood groups
and polymorphism; Chromosome abberations; Gene and its structure; DNA as a
genetic material; Genetic code and protein synthesis; Recombinant DNA
technology, Mutations, types of mutations, methods for detecting mutations and
4.1 Population Genetics Applied to Animal Breeding: Quantitative Vs.
qualitative traits; Hardy Weinberg Law; Population Vs. individual; Gene and
genotypic frequency; Forces changing gene frequency; Random drift and small
populations; Theory of path coefficient; Inbreeding, methods of estimating
inbreeding coefficient, systems of inbreeding; Effective population size;
Breeding value, estimation of breeding value, dominance and epistatic deviation;
partitioning of variation; Genotype X environment correlation and genotype X
environment interaction; Role of multiple measurements; Resemblance between
4.2 Breeding Systems : Heritability, repeatability and genetic and phenotypic
correlations, their methods of estimation and precision of estimates; Aids to
selection and their relative merits; Individual, pedigree, family and within
family selection; Progeny testing; Methods of selection; Construction of
selection indices and their uses; Comparative evaluation of genetic gains
through various selection methods; Indirect selection and Correlated response;
Inbreeding, upgrading, cross-breeding and synthesis of brees; Crossing of inbred
lines for commercial production; Selection for general and specific combining
ability; Breeding for threshold character.
1. Health and Hygiene
1.1. Histology and Histological Techniques : Stains-Chemical classification
of stains used in biological work-principles of staining
tissues-mordants-progressive & regressive stains-differential staining of
cytoplasmic and connective tissue elements-Methods of preparation and processing
of tissues-celloidin embedding-Freezing microtomy-Microscopy-Bright field
microscope and electron microscope. Cytology-structure of cell, organells &
inclusions; cell divison-cell types-Tissues and their classification-embryonic
and adult tissues-Comparative histology of organs:- vascular, Nervous,
digestive, respiratory, musculo-skeletal and urogenital systems-Endocrine
1.2. Embryology : Embryology of vertebrates with special reference to aves
and domestic mammals-gametogenesis-fertilization-germ layers-foetal membranes
& placentation-types of placenta in domestic mammals-Teratology-twin &
twinning-organogenesis-germ layer derivatives-endodermal, mesodermal and
1.3 Bovine Anatomy-Regional Anatomy : Paranasal sinuses of OX-surface anatomy
of salivary glands. Regional anatomy of infraorbital, maxillary,
mandibuloalveolar, mental & coronal nerve block-Regional anatomy of
paravertebral nerves, pudental nerve, median, ulnar & radial nerves-tibial,
fibular and digital nerves-Cranial nerves-structures involved in epidural
anaesthesia-superficial lymph nodes-surface anatomy of visceral organs of
thoracic, abdominal and pelvic cavities-comparative features of locomotor
apparatus & their application in the biomechanics of mammalian body.
1.4 Anatomy of Fowl : Musculo-skeletal system-functional anatomy in relation
to respiration and flying, digestion and egg production.
1.5 Physiology of blood and its circulation, respiration; excretion,
Endocrine glands in health and disease.
1.5.1 Blood constituents : Properties and functions-blood cell
formation-Haemoglobin synthesis and chemistry-plasma proteins production,
classification and properties; coagulation of blood; Haemorrhagic
disorders-anticoagulants-blood groups-Blood volume-Plasma expanders-Buffer
systems in blood. Biochemical tests and their significance in disease diagnosis.
1.5.2. Circulation: Physiology of heart, cardiac cycle-heart sounds, heart
beat, electrocardiograms, Work and efficiency of heart-effect of ions on heart
function-metabolism of cardiac muscle, nervous and chemical regulation of heart,
effect of temperature and stress on heart, blood pressure and hypertension,
Osmotic regulation, arterial pulse, vasomotor regulation of circulation, shock.
Coronary & pulmonary circulation, Blood-Brain barrier-Cerebrospinal
fluid-circulation in birds.
1.5.3 Respiration : Mechanism of respiration, Transport and exchange of
gases-neural control of respiration-chemoreceptors-hypoxia-respiration in birds.
1.5.4 Excretion: Structure and function of kidney-formation of urinemethods
of studying renal function-renal regulation of acid-base balance; physiological
constituents of urine-renal failure-passive venous congestion-Urinary recreation
in chicken-Sweat glands and their function. Biochemical tests for urinary
1.5.5 Endocrine glands : Functional disorders, their symptoms and diagnosis.
Synthesis of hormones, mechanism and control of secretion-hormonal
receptors-classification and function.
1.6. General knowlege of pharmacology and therapeutics of drugs : Celluar
level of pharmacodynamics and pharmaco-kinetics-Drugs acting on fluids and
electrolyte balance-drugs acting on Autonomic nervous system-Modern concepts of
anaesthesia and dissociative anaesthetics-Autocoids-Antimicrobials and
principles of chemotherapy in microbial injections-use of hormones in
therapeutics-chemotherapy of parasitic infections-Drug and economic persons in
the Edible tissues of animals-chemotherapy of Neoplastic diseases.
1.7. Veterinary Hygiene with reference to water, air and habitation :
Assessment of pollution of water, air and soil-Importance of climate in animal
health-effect of environment on animal function and performance-relationship
between industri-alisation and animal agriculture-animal housing requirements
for specific categories of domestic animals viz. pregnant cows & sows,
milking cows, broiler birds-stress, strain & productivity in relation to
2. Animal Diseases :
2.1 Pathogenesis, symptoms, postmortum lesions, diagnosis, and control of
infection diseases of cattle, pigs and poultry, horses, sheep and goats.
2.2 Etiology, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment of production diseases of
cattle, pig and poultry.
2.3 Deficiency diseases of domestic animals and birds.
2.4 Diagnosis and treatment of nonspecific condition like impaction, Bloat,
Diarrhoea, Indigestion, dehydration, stroke, poisioning.
2.5 Diagnosis and treatment of neurological disorders.
2.6 Principles and methods of immunisation of animals against specific
disseases-hard immunity-disease free zones-'zero' disease
2.7 Anaesthesia-local, regional and general-preanaesthetic medication,
Symptoms and surgical interference in fractures and dislocation, Hernia,
choking, abomassal displacement-Caesarian operations, Rumenotomy-Castrations.
2.8 Disease investigation techniques-Materials for laboratory
investigation-Establishment Animal Health Centres-Disease free zone.
3. Veterinary Public Health
3.1 Zoonoses : Classification, definition; role of animals and birds in
prevalence and transmission of zoonotic diseases-occupational zoonotic diseases.
3.2. Epidemiology : Principles, definition of epidemiological terms,
application of epidemiological measures in the study of diseases and disease
control, Epidemiological features of air, water and food borne infections.
3.3 Veterinary Jurisprudence : Rules and Regulations for improvement of
animal quality and prevention of animal diseases-state and control Rules for
prevention of animal and animal product borne diseases-S.P. C.A. -veterolegal
cases-certificates-Materials and Methods of collection of samples for
4. Milk and Milk Products Technology :
4.1 Milk Technology : Organization of rural milk procurement, collection and
transport of raw milk.
Quality, testing and grading raw milk, Quality storage grades of whole milk,
Skimmed milk and cream.
Processing, packaging, storing, distributing, marketing defects and their
control and nutritive properties of the following milks : Pasteurized,
standardized, toned, double toned, sterilized, homogenized, reconstituted,
recombined and flavoured milks. Preparation of cultured milks, cultures and
their management, youghurt, Dahi, Lassi and Srikhand. Preparation of flavoured
and sterlized milks. Legal standards, Sanitation requirement for clean and safe
milk and for the milk plant equipment.
4.2 Milk Products Technology : Selection of raw materials, assembling,
production, processing, storing, distributing and marketing milk products such
as Butter, Ghee, Khoa, Channa, Cheese; Condensed, evaporated, dried milk and
baby food; Ice cream and Kulfi; by products; whey products, butter milk, lactose
and casein. Testing Grading, judging milk products-BIS and Agmark
specifications, legal standards, quality control nutritive properties.
Packaging, processing and operational control Costs.
5. Meat Hygiene and Technology :
5.1 Meat Hygiene :
5.1.1 Ante mortem care and management of food animals, stunning, slaughter
and dressing operations; abattoir requirements and designs; Meat inspection
procedures and judgement of carcass meat cuts-drading of carcass meat
cuts-duties and functions of Veterinarians in Wholesome meat production.
5.1.2 Hygienic methods of handling production of meat-spoilage of meat and
control measures-Post slaughter physicochemical changes in meat and factors that
influence them-quality improvement methods-Adulteration of meat and
defection-Regulatory provisions in Meat trade and Industry.
5.2. Meat Technology
5.2.1 Physical and chemical characteristics of meat-meat emulsions-methods of
preservation of meat-curing, canning, irradiation, packaging of meat and meat
products; meat products and formulations.
5.3. Byproducts : Slaughter house by products and their utilisation-Edible
and inedible byproducts-social and economic implications of proper utilisation
of slaughter house byproducts-Organ products for food and pharmaceuticals.
5.4. Poultry Products Technology : Chemical composition and nutritive value
of poultry meat, pre slaughter care and management. Slaughtering techniques,
inspection, preservation of poultry meat, and products. Legal and BIS standards.
Structure, composition and nutritive value of eggs. Microbial spoilage.
Preservation and mainteancne. Marketing of poultry meat, eggs and products.
5.5. Rabbit/Fur Animal farming : Care and management of rabbit meat
production. Disposal and utilization of fur and wool and recycling of waste
byproducts. Grading of wool.
6. Extension : Basic philosophy, objectives, concept and principles of
extension. Different Methods adopted to educate farmers under rural conditions.
Generation of technology, its transfer and feedback. Problems of constraints in
transfer of technology. Animal husbandry programmes for rural development.