The standard of papers in General English and General
Knowledge will be such as may be expected of a Science or Engineering
graduate of an Indian University.
The Scope of the Syllabus for optional subject papers for
the examination is Broadly of the Honours Degree level i.e. A level Higher
than the Bachelors Degree and lower than the Masters Degree. In the case of
Engineering subjects, the level corresponds to the Bachelors Degree.
There will be no practical examination in any of the
Candidates will be required to write an essay in English.
Other questions will be designed to test their understanding of English and
workmanlike use of words. Passages will usually be set for summary or
General Knowledge including knowledge of current events and
of such matters of every day observation and experience in their scientific
aspects as may be expected of an educated person who has not made a special
study of any scientific subject. The paper will also include questions on
Indian Polity including the political system and the Constitution of India,
History of India and Geography of a nuture which the candidate should be
able to answer without special study.
Total number of questions in the question papers of optional
subjects will be eight. All questions will carry equal marks. Each paper
will be divided into two parts, viz. Part A and Part B, each part containing
four questions. Out of eight questions, five questions are to be attempted.
One question in each part will be compulsory. Candidates will be required to
answer three more questions out of the remaining six questions, taking at
least one question from each Part. In this way, at least two questions will
be attempted from each Part i.e. one compulsory question plus one more.
Ecology and its relevance to man, natural resources, their
sustainable management and conservation. Physical and social environment as
factors of crop distribution and production. Climatic elements as factors of
crop growth, impact of changing environment on cropping pattern as
indicators of environments. Environmental pollution and associated hazards
to crops, animals, and humans.
Cropping pattern in different agro-climatic zones of the
country. Impact of high-yielding and short-duration varieties on shifts in
cropping pattern. Concepts of multiple cropping, multistorey, relay and
inter-cropping, and their importance in relation to food production. Package
of practices for production of important cereals, pulses, oil seeds, fibres,
sugar, commercial and fodder crops grown during Kharif and Rabi seasons in
different regions of the country.
Important features, scope and propagation of various types
of forestry plantations such as extension, social forestry, agro-forestry,
and natural forests.
Weeds, their characteristics, dissemination and association
with various crops; their multiplication; cultural, biological and chemical
control of weeds.
Soil-physical, chemical and biological properties. Processes
and factors of soil formation. Modern classification of Indian soils,
Mineral and organic constituents of soils and their role in maintaining soil
productivity. Essential plant nutrients and other beneficial elements in
soils and plants. Principles of soil fertility and its evaluation for
judicious fertiliser use, integrated nutrient management. Losses of nitrogen
in soil, nitrogen-use efficiency in submerged rice soils, nitrogen fixation
in soils. Fixation of phosphorus and potassium in soils and the scope for
their efficient use. Problem soils and their reclamation methods.
Soil conservation planning on watershed basis. Erosion and
run-off management in hilly, foot hills, and valley lands; processes and
factors affecting them. Dryland agriculture and its problems. Technology of
stabilising agriculture production in rainfed agriculture area.
Water-use efficiency in relation to crop production,
criteria for scheduling irrigations, ways and means of reducing run-off
losses of irrigation water. Drip and sprinkler irrigation. Drainage of
water-logged soils, quality of irrigation water, effect of industrial
effluents on soil and water pollution.
Farm management, scope, important and characteristics, farm
planning. Optimum resources use and budgeting. Economics of different types
of farming systems.
Marketing and pricing of agricultural inputs and outputs,
price fluctuations and their cost; role of co-operatives in agricultural
economy; types and systems of farming and factors affecting them.
Agricultural extension, its importance and role, methods of
evaluation of extension programmes, socio-economic survey and status of big,
small, and marginal farmers and landless agricultural labourers; farm
mechanization and its role in agricultural productioin and rural employment.
Training programmes for extension workers; lab-to-land programmes.
Cell Theory, cell structure, cell organelles and their
function, cell division, nucleic acids-structure and function, gene
structure and function. Laws of heredity, their significance in plant
breeding. Chromosome structure, chromosomal aberrations, linkage and
cross-over, and their significance in recombination breeding. Polyploidy,
euploid and an euploids. Mutation-micro and macro-and their role in crop
improvement. Variation, components of variation. Heritability, sterility and
incompatibility, classification and their application in crop improvement.
Cytoplasmic inheritance, sex-linked, sex-influenced and sex-limited
History of plant breeding. Modes of reproduction, selfing
and crossing techniques. Origin and evolution of crop plants, centre of
origin, law of homologous series, crop genetic resources-conservation and
utilization. Application of principles of plant breeding to the improvement
of major field crops. Pure-line selection, pedigree, mass and recurrent
selections, combining ability, its significance in plant breeding. Hybrid
vigour and its exploitation, backcross method of breeding, breeding for
disease and pest resistance, role of interspecific and intergeneric
hybridization. Role of biotechnology in plant breeding. Improved varieties,
hybrids, composites of various crop plants.
Seed technology, its importance. Different kinds of seeds
and their seed production and processing techniques. Role of public and
private sectors in seed production, processing and marketing in India.
Physiology and its significance in agriculture. Imbibition,
surface tension, diffusion and osmosis. Absorption and translocation of
water, transpiration and water economy.
Enzymes and plant pigments; photosynthesis-modern concepts
and factors affecting the process, aerobic and nonaerobic respiration; C, C
and CAM mechanisms. Carbohydrate, protein and fat metabolism.
Growth and development; photoperiodism and vernalization.
Auxins, hormones, and other plant regulators and their mechanism of action
and importance in agriculture. Physiology of seed development and
Climatic requirements and cultivation of major fruits,
plants, vegetable crops and flower plants; the package of practices and
their scientific basis. Handling and marketing problems of fruit and
vegetables. Principal methods of preservation of important fruits and
vegetable products, processing techniques and equipment. Role of fruits and
vegetables in human nutriton. Raising of ornamental plants, and design and
layout of lawns and gardens.
Diseases and pests of field vegetables, orchard and
plantation crops of India. Causes and classification of plant pests and
diseases. Principles of control of plant pests and diseases Biological
control of pests and diseases. Integrated pest and disease management.
Epidemiology and forecasting.
Pesticides, their formulations and modes of action.
Compatibility with rhizobial inoculants. Microbial toxins.
Storage pests and diseases of cereals and pulses, and their
Food production and consumption trends in India. National
and international food policies. Production, procurement, distribution and
processing constraints. Relation of food production to national dietary
pattern, major deficiencies of calorie and protein.
1. Soil and Water Conservation : Scope of soil and water
conservation. Mechanics and types of erosion, their causes. Rainfall, runoff
and sedimentation relationships and their measurement. Soil erosion control
measures - biological and engineering including stream bank
protection-vegetative barriers, contour bunds, contour trenches, contour
stone walls, contour ditches, terraces, outlets and grassed waterwyas. Gully
control structures - temporary and permanent - design of permanent soil
conservation structures such as chute, drop and drop inlet spillways. Design
of farm ponds and percolation ponds. Principles of flood control-flood
routing. Watershed Management - investigation, planning and implementation -
selection of priority areas and water shed work plan, water harvesting and
moisture conservation. Land development - levelling, estimation of earth
volumes and costing. Wind Erosion process - design fo shelter belts and wind
brakes and their management. Forest (Conservation) Act,
2. Aerial Photography and Remote Sensing : Basic
characteristics of photographic images, interpretation keys, equipment for
interpretation, imagery interpretation for land use, geology, soil and
Remote sensing - merits and demerits of conventional and
remote sensing approaches. Types of satellite images, fundamentals of
satellite image interpretation, teachniques of visual and digital
interpretations for soil, water and land use management. Use of GIS in
planning and development of watersheds, forests including forest cover,
water resources etc.
3. Irrigation and Drainage : Sources of water for
irrigation. Planning and design of minor irrigation projects. Techniques of
measuring soil moisture - laboratory and in situ, Soil-water plant
relationships. Water requirement of crops. Planning conjunctive use of
surface and ground weater. Measurement of irrigation water, measuring
devices - orifices, weirs and flumes. Methods of irrigation - surface,
sprinkler and drip, fertigation. Irrigation efficiencies and their
estimation. Design and construction of canals, field channels, underground
pipelines, head-gates, diversion boxes and structures for road crossing.
Occurrence of ground water, hydraulics of wells, types of
wells (tube wells and open wells) and their construction. Well development
and testing. Pumps-types, selection and installation. Rehabilitation of sick
and failed wells.
Drainage causes of waterlogging and salt problem. Methods of
drainage drainage of irrigated and unirrigated lands, design of surface,
sub-surface and vertical drainage systems. Improvement and utilization of
poor quality water. Reclamation of saline and alkali soils. Economics of
irrigation and drainage systems. Use of waste water for irrigation standards
of waste water for sustained irrigation, feasibility and economics.
4. Agricultural Structures : Site selection, design and
construction of farmstead - farm house, cattle shed, dairy bam, poultry
shed, hog housing, machinery and implement shed, storage structures for food
grains, feed and forage. Design and consturction of fences and farm roads.
Structures for plant environment - green houses, poly houses and shade
houses. Common building materials used in construction - timber, brick,
stone, tiles, concrete etc and their properties. Water supply, drainage and
1. Farm Power and Machinery : Agricultural mechanization and
its scope. Sources of farm power - animate and electro-mechanical.
Thermodynamics, construction and working of internal combustion engines.
Fuel, ignition, lubrication, cooling and governing system of IC engines.
Different types of tractors and power tillers. Power tramsmission, ground
drive, power take off (p.t.o.) and control systems. Operation and
maintenance of farm machinery for primary and secondary tillage. Traction
theory. Sowing transplanting and interculture implements and tools. Plant
protection equipment - spraying and dusting. Harvesting, threshing and
combining equipment. Machinery for earth moving and land development -
methods and cost estimation. Ergonomics of man-machine system. Machinery for
horticulture and agro-forestry, feeds and forages. Haulage of agricultural
and forest produce.
2. Agro-energy : Energy requirements of agricultural
operations and agro-processing. Selection, installation, safety and
maintenance of electric motors for agricultural applications. Solar (thermal
and photovoltoic), wind and bio-gas energy and their utilization in
agriculture. Gasification of biomass for running IC engines and for electric
power generation. Energy efficient cooking stoves and alternate cooking
fuels. Distribution of electricity for agricultural and agro-industrial
3. Agricultural Process Engineering : Post harvest
technology of crops and its scope. Engineering properties of agricultural
produces and by-products. Unit operations - clearning grading, size
reduction, densification, concentration, drying/dehydration, evaporation,
filtration, freezing and packaging of agricultural produces and by-products.
Material handling equipment - belt and screw conveyors, bucket elevators,
their capacity and power requirement.
Processing of milk and dairy products - homogenization,
cream separation, pasteurization, sterilization, spray and roller drying,
butter making, ice cream, cheese and shrikhand manufacture. Waste and
by-product utilization - rice husk, rice bran, sugarcane bagasse, plant
residues and coir pith.
4. Instrumentation and computer applications in Agricultural
Engineering : Electronic devices and their characteristics - rectifiers,
amplifiers, oscillators, multivibrators. Digital circuits sequential and
combinational system. Application of microprocessors in data acquisition and
control of agricultural engineering processes- measurement systems for
level, flow, strain, force, torque, power, pressure, vaccum and temperature.
Computers introduction, input/output devices, central processing unit,
memory devices, operating systems, processors, keyboards and printers.
Algorithms, flowchart specification, programme translation and problem
analysis in Agricultural Engineering. Multimedia and Audio-Visual aids.
Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Science
1. Animal Nutrition-Energy sources, energy, metabolism and
requirements for maintenance and production of milk, meat, eggs and wool.
Evaluation of feeds as sources of energy.
1.1. Trends in protein nutriton: sources of protein
metabolism and synthesis, protein quantity and quality in relation to
requirements. Energy protein ratios in ration.
1.2. Minerals in animal diet : Sources, functions,
requirements and their relationship of the basic minerals nutrients
including trace elements.
1.3. Vitamins, Hormones and Growth Stimulating, substances :
Sources, functions, requirements and inter-relationship with minerlas.
1.4. Advances in Ruminant Nutrition-Dairy Cattle: Nutrients
and their metabolism with reference to milk production and its composition.
Nutrient requirements for calves, heifers, dry and milking cows and
buffaloes. Limitations of various feeding systems.
1.5 Advances in Non-Rumiant Nutrition-Poultry-Nutrients and
their metabolism with reference to poultry, meat and egg production,
Nutrients requirements and feed formulation and broilers at different ages.
1.6 Advances in Non-Ruminant Nutrition-Swine-Nutrients and
their metabolism with special reference to growth and quality of meat
production, Nutrient requirement and feed formulation for baby-growing and
1.7. Advances in Applied Animal Nutrition-A critical review
and evalaution of feeding experiments, digestibility and balance studies.
Feeding standards and measures of food energy. Nutrition requirements for
growth, maintenance and production. Balanced rations.
2. Animal Physiology :
2.1 Growth and Animal Production :-Prenatal and postnatal
growth, maturation, growth curves, measures of growth, factors affecting
growth, conformation, body composition, meat quality.
2.2 Milk Production and Reproduction and Digestion : Current
status of hormonal control of mammary development, milk secretion and milk
ejection. Male and Female reproduction organ, their components and function.
Digestive organs and their functions.
2.3 Environmental Physiology : Physiological relations and
their regulation; mechanisms of adaption, environmental factors and
regulatory mechanism involved in animal behaviour, methods of controlling
2.4 Semen quality : Preservation and Artificial
Insemination-Components of semen, composition of spermatozoe, chemical and
physical properties of ejaculated semen, factors affecting semen in vivo and
in vitro. Factors affecting semen production and quality preservation,
composition of diluents, sperm concentration, transport of diluted semen.
Deep Freezing techniques in cows, sheep and goats, swine and poultry.
Detection of oestrus and time of insemination for better
3. Livestock Production and Management :
3.1 Commercial Dairy Farming-Comparison of dairy farming in
India with advanced countries. Dairying under fixed farming and as a
specialised farming, economic dairy farming, Starting of a dairy farm.
Capital and land requirement, organisation of the dairy farm.
Procurement of goods; opportunities in dairy farming,
factors determining the efficiency of dairy animal, Herd recording,
budgeting, cost of milk production; pricing policy; Personnel Management.
Developing Practical and Economic ration for dairy cattle; supply of greens
throughout the year, field and fodder requirements of Dairy Farm, Feeding
regimes for day and young stock and bulls, heifers and breeding animals, new
trends in feeding young and adult stock; Feeding records.
3.2. Commercial meat, egg and wool production: Development
of practical and economic rations for sheep, goats, pigs, rabbits and
poultry. Supply of greens, fodder, feeding regimens for young and mature
stock. New trends in enhancing production and management. Capital and land
requirements and socio-economic concept.
3.3. Feeding and management of animals under drought, flood
and other natural calamities.
4. Genetics and Animal Breeding : Mitosis and Meiosis;
Mendelian inheritance; deviations to Mendelian genetics; Expression of
genes; Linkage and crossing over; Sex determination, sex influenced and sex
limited characters; Blood groups and polymorphism; Chromosome abberations;
Gene and its structure; DNA as a genetic material; Genetic code and protein
synthesis; Recombinant DNA technology, Mutations, types of mutations,
methods for detecting mutations and mutation rate.
4.1 Population Genetics Applied to Animal Breeding:
Quantitative Vs. qualitative traits; Hardy Weinberg Law; Population Vs.
individual; Gene and genotypic frequency; Forces changing gene frequency;
Random drift and small populations; Theory of path coefficient; Inbreeding,
methods of estimating inbreeding coefficient, systems of inbreeding;
Effective population size; Breeding value, estimation of breeding value,
dominance and epistatic deviation; partitioning of variation; Genotype X
environment correlation and genotype X environment interaction; Role of
multiple measurements; Resemblance between relatives.
4.2 Breeding Systems : Heritability, repeatability and
genetic and phenotypic correlations, their methods of estimation and
precision of estimates; Aids to selection and their relative merits;
Individual, pedigree, family and within family selection; Progeny testing;
Methods of selection; Construction of selection indices and their uses;
Comparative evaluation of genetic gains through various selection methods;
Indirect selection and Correlated response; Inbreeding, upgrading,
cross-breeding and synthesis of brees; Crossing of inbred lines for
commercial production; Selection for general and specific combining ability;
Breeding for threshold character.
1. Health and Hygiene
1.1. Histology and Histological Techniques : Stains-Chemical
classification of stains used in biological work-principles of staining
tissues-mordants-progressive & regressive stains-differential staining
of cytoplasmic and connective tissue elements-Methods of preparation and
processing of tissues-celloidin embedding-Freezing
microtomy-Microscopy-Bright field microscope and electron microscope.
Cytology-structure of cell, organells & inclusions; cell divison-cell
types-Tissues and their classification-embryonic and adult
tissues-Comparative histology of organs:- vascular, Nervous, digestive,
respiratory, musculo-skeletal and urogenital systems-Endocrine
1.2. Embryology : Embryology of vertebrates with special
reference to aves and domestic mammals-gametogenesis-fertilization-germ
layers-foetal membranes & placentation-types of placenta in domestic
mammals-Teratology-twin & twinning-organogenesis-germ layer
derivatives-endodermal, mesodermal and ectodermal derivatives.
1.3 Bovine Anatomy-Regional Anatomy : Paranasal sinuses of
OX-surface anatomy of salivary glands. Regional anatomy of infraorbital,
maxillary, mandibuloalveolar, mental & coronal nerve block-Regional
anatomy of paravertebral nerves, pudental nerve, median, ulnar & radial
nerves-tibial, fibular and digital nerves-Cranial nerves-structures involved
in epidural anaesthesia-superficial lymph nodes-surface anatomy of visceral
organs of thoracic, abdominal and pelvic cavities-comparative features of
locomotor apparatus & their application in the biomechanics of mammalian
1.4 Anatomy of Fowl : Musculo-skeletal system-functional
anatomy in relation to respiration and flying, digestion and egg production.
1.5 Physiology of blood and its circulation, respiration;
excretion, Endocrine glands in health and disease.
1.5.1 Blood constituents : Properties and functions-blood
cell formation-Haemoglobin synthesis and chemistry-plasma proteins
production, classification and properties; coagulation of blood;
Haemorrhagic disorders-anticoagulants-blood groups-Blood volume-Plasma
expanders-Buffer systems in blood. Biochemical tests and their significance
in disease diagnosis.
1.5.2. Circulation: Physiology of heart, cardiac cycle-heart
sounds, heart beat, electrocardiograms, Work and efficiency of heart-effect
of ions on heart function-metabolism of cardiac muscle, nervous and chemical
regulation of heart, effect of temperature and stress on heart, blood
pressure and hypertension, Osmotic regulation, arterial pulse, vasomotor
regulation of circulation, shock. Coronary & pulmonary circulation,
Blood-Brain barrier-Cerebrospinal fluid-circulation in birds.
1.5.3 Respiration : Mechanism of respiration, Transport and
exchange of gases-neural control of
respiration-chemoreceptors-hypoxia-respiration in birds.
1.5.4 Excretion: Structure and function of kidney-formation
of urinemethods of studying renal function-renal regulation of acid-base
balance; physiological constituents of urine-renal failure-passive venous
congestion-Urinary recreation in chicken-Sweat glands and their function.
Biochemical tests for urinary dysfunction.
1.5.5 Endocrine glands : Functional disorders, their
symptoms and diagnosis. Synthesis of hormones, mechanism and control of
secretion-hormonal receptors-classification and function.
1.6. General knowlege of pharmacology and therapeutics of
drugs : Celluar level of pharmacodynamics and pharmaco-kinetics-Drugs acting
on fluids and electrolyte balance-drugs acting on Autonomic nervous
system-Modern concepts of anaesthesia and dissociative
anaesthetics-Autocoids-Antimicrobials and principles of chemotherapy in
microbial injections-use of hormones in therapeutics-chemotherapy of
parasitic infections-Drug and economic persons in the Edible tissues of
animals-chemotherapy of Neoplastic diseases.
1.7. Veterinary Hygiene with reference to water, air and
habitation : Assessment of pollution of water, air and soil-Importance of
climate in animal health-effect of environment on animal function and
performance-relationship between industri-alisation and animal
agriculture-animal housing requirements for specific categories of domestic
animals viz. pregnant cows & sows, milking cows, broiler birds-stress,
strain & productivity in relation to animal habitation.
2. Animal Diseases :
2.1 Pathogenesis, symptoms, postmortum lesions, diagnosis,
and control of infection diseases of cattle, pigs and poultry, horses, sheep
2.2 Etiology, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment of production
diseases of cattle, pig and poultry.
2.3 Deficiency diseases of domestic animals and birds.
2.4 Diagnosis and treatment of nonspecific condition like
impaction, Bloat, Diarrhoea, Indigestion, dehydration, stroke, poisioning.
2.5 Diagnosis and treatment of neurological disorders.
2.6 Principles and methods of immunisation of animals
against specific disseases-hard immunity-disease free zones-â€™zeroâ€™
2.7 Anaesthesia-local, regional and general-preanaesthetic
medication, Symptoms and surgical interference in fractures and dislocation,
Hernia, choking, abomassal displacement-Caesarian operations,
2.8 Disease investigation techniques-Materials for
laboratory investigation-Establishment Animal Health Centres-Disease free
3. Veterinary Public Health
3.1 Zoonoses : Classification, definition; role of animals
and birds in prevalence and transmission of zoonotic diseases-occupational
3.2. Epidemiology : Principles, definition of
epidemiological terms, application of epidemiological measures in the study
of diseases and disease control, Epidemiological features of air, water and
food borne infections.
3.3 Veterinary Jurisprudence : Rules and Regulations for
improvement of animal quality and prevention of animal diseases-state and
control Rules for prevention of animal and animal product borne
diseases-S.P. C.A.-veterolegal cases-certificates-Materials and Methods of
collection of samples for veterolegal investigation.
4. Milk and Milk Products Technology :
4.1 Milk Technology : Organization of rural milk
procurement, collection and transport of raw milk.
Quality, testing and grading raw milk, Quality storage
grades of whole milk, Skimmed milk and cream.
Processing, packaging, storing, distributing, marketing
defects and their control and nutritive properties of the following milks :
Pasteurized, standardized, toned, double toned, sterilized, homogenized,
reconstituted, recombined and flavoured milks. Preparation of cultured
milks, cultures and their management, youghurt, Dahi, Lassi and Srikhand.
Preparation of flavoured and sterlized milks. Legal standards, Sanitation
requirement for clean and safe milk and for the milk plant equipment.
4.2 Milk Products Technology : Selection of raw materials,
assembling, production, processing, storing, distributing and marketing milk
products such as Butter, Ghee, Khoa, Channa, Cheese; Condensed, evaporated,
dried milk and baby food; Ice cream and Kulfi; by products; whey products,
butter milk, lactose and casein. Testing Grading, judging milk products-BIS
and Agmark specifications, legal standards, quality control nutritive
properties. Packaging, processing and operational control Costs.
5. Meat Hygiene and Technology :
5.1 Meat Hygiene :
5.1.1 Ante mortem care and management of food animals,
stunning, slaughter and dressing operations; abattoir requirements and
designs; Meat inspection procedures and judgement of carcass meat
cuts-drading of carcass meat cuts-duties and functions of Veterinarians in
Wholesome meat production.
5.1.2 Hygienic methods of handling production of
meat-spoilage of meat and control measures-Post slaughter physicochemical
changes in meat and factors that influence them-quality improvement
methods-Adulteration of meat and defection-Regulatory provisions in Meat
trade and Industry.
5.2. Meat Technology
5.2.1 Physical and chemical characteristics of meat-meat
emulsions-methods of preservation of meat-curing, canning, irradiation,
packaging of meat and meat products; meat products and formulations.
5.3. Byproducts : Slaughter house by products and their
utilisation-Edible and inedible byproducts-social and economic implications
of proper utilisation of slaughter house byproducts-Organ products for food
5.4. Poultry Products Technology : Chemical composition and
nutritive value of poultry meat, pre slaughter care and management.
Slaughtering techniques, inspection, preservation of poultry meat, and
products. Legal and BIS standards.
Structure, composition and nutritive value of eggs.
Microbial spoilage. Preservation and mainteancne. Marketing of poultry meat,
eggs and products.
5.5. Rabbit/Fur Animal farming : Care and management of
rabbit meat production. Disposal and utilization of fur and wool and
recycling of waste byproducts. Grading of wool.
6. Extension : Basic philosophy, objectives, concept and
principles of extension. Different Methods adopted to educate farmers under
rural conditions. Generation of technology, its transfer and feedback.
Problems of constraints in transfer of technology. Animal husbandry
programmes for rural development.