(Paper) Law : Optional Subject of Main Examination

UPSC : Law : Optional Subject of Main Examination



Constitutional Law of India
1. Nature of the Indian Constitution: the distinctive features of its federal character.
2. Fundamental Rights.
3. Relationship between Fundamental Rights, Directive Principles and Fundamental Duties.
4. Constitutional Position of the President and relation with the Council of Ministers.
5. Governor and his Powers.
6. Appointment and Transfer of judges of the Supreme Court and the High Courts.
7. Supreme Court and High Courts: Powers and Jurisdiction.
8. Union Public Service Commission and State Public Service Commissions: Powers and Functions.
9. Distribution of Legislative Powers between the Union and the States.
10. Administrative Relationship between Union and the States.
11. Emergency Provisions
12. Givil Servants: Constitutional safeguards.
13. Parliamentary Privileges
14. Amendment of the Constitution.
15. Principle of Natural Justice
16. Delegated Legislation: Its constitutionality and judicial and legislative . controls.
17. Judicial Review of Administrative Action.



International Law
1. Nature and Definition of International Law.
2. Relationship between International Law and Municipal Law
3. State Recognition and State Succession.
4. Sea: Inland Waters, Territorial Sea,Contiguous Zone, Continental Shelf, Exclusive Economic Zone and High Seas.
5. Individuals, nationality, statelessness; Human Rights and procedures available for their enforcement.
6. Territorial jurisdiction of States, Extradition and Asylum.
7. Treaties: Formation application, termination and reservation.
8. United Nations: Its principal organs, powers, and functions.
9. Settlement of Disputes.
10. Lawful recourse to force; aggressions, self-defence, intervention.
11. Legality of the use of nuclear weapons; ban on testing of nuclear weapons; Nuclear non proliferation treaty-, CTBT.
12. International Terrorism State sponsored terrorism, Hijacking, International Criminal Court.
13. New International Economic order and Monetary law: WTO, TRIPS, GATT, IMF, World Bank.
14. Protection and Improvement of the Human Environment: International Efforts.



Section-A Law of Crimes:
1. General Principles of Criminal Liability: mens rea and actus reus, Mens rea in statutory offences.
2. Application of the Indian Penal Code.
3. Kinds of Punishment.
4. Preparations and criminal attempts
5. General exceptions.
6. Joint and constructive liability.
7. Abetment.
8. Criminal conspiracy.
9. Offences against the State.
10. Offences against public tranquillity.
11. Offences against human body.
12. Offences against property
13. Offences Relating to Marriage.
14. Defamation
15. Protection of Civil Rights Act, 1955
16. Dowry Prohibition Act, 1961
17. Prevention of Corruption Act, 1988.

Law of Torts: 1. Nature and definition. 2. Liability based upon fault and strict liability. 3. Vicarious liability including State Liability. 4. General defences. 5. Joint tort-feasors. 6. Remedies. 7. Negligence 8. Defamation. 9. Nuisance. 10. Conspiracy 11. False imprisonment. 12. Malicious Prosecution. 13. Consumer Protection Act, 1986.



Law of Contracts and Mercantile Law
1. Formation of Contract
2. Factors vitiating consent
3. Void voidable, illegal and unenforceable agreements.
4. Performance and discharge of contracts.
5. Quasi-contracts.
6. Consequences of breach of contract
7. Contract of Agency.
8. Sale of goods and hire purchase.
9. Formation and dissolution of partnership
10. Negotiable Instruments Act, 1881.
11. Arbitration and Conciliation Act, 1996.