(Prelims) Examination Special
Quick Revision Notes
Empire - IV
: Indian History
In 1577 Akbar undertook the reform of the currency and
appointed Khwaja Abdus Samad Shirazi, a
noted painter and calligraphist, to be the
superintendent of the imperial mint at
Besides Delhi, provinical mints were
located at Lahore, Jaunpur, Ahmedabad,
Patna and Tanda (in Bengal).
The silver coin issued
during Akbarâ€™s reign was round in shape,
like its modern successor, and was known as
weighed 172 grains.
Akbar also introduced a square rupee called
it was not as popular as the round rupee.
The chief copper coin was
the dam or
weighed 323.5 grains or almost 21 grams.
The ratio between the dam and
the rupee was
40 to 1. 7. The lowest copper coin was jital.
25 jitals made one paisa.
The most common gold coin was
the Ilahi, which
was equal to 10 rupees in value.
The biggest gold coin was the shahanshah.
a little over 101 tolas and was used mostly in high value
The coins bore calligraphic inscriptions containing name
and titles of the emperor and the place and year of mintage.
Very few coins had figures inscribed on
The judicial system of
Mughals was based on Islamic law. As it
was not possible in practice to enforce Islamic
law on Hindus, a compromise was effected. While criminal
cases continued to be decided according to the Islamic
law in all cases, Hindu law was administered in deciding
civil and religious disputes in which the parties were
Although Akbar had rejected the Islamic theory of kingship,
he made no fundamental change in the judicial system.
One important change introduced by Akbar in the judicial
system was to restrict the scope of Islamic law and to
extend that of general or customary law of the land so as to
make it include as many causes as possible.
Akbar did not apply Islamic law of capital punishment for
apostasy from Islam or for propagating Hinduism or
Akbar appointed Hindu judges to decide the causes of
The king was the highest judge in the Mughal empire.
The next judicial authority was the qazi,
who was appointed
by the emperor and worked during his pleasure.
Originally, the chief qaziâ€™s main
qualifications used to be his knowledge of
Islamic theology and his narrow secretarian views.
Akbar, however, appointed to this post men of
liberal religious outlook and broad sympathies towards all
sections of the society.
Chief qazi was
paid his salary in cash, as also was given
an assignment of land entitled Madad-i-Mash
or subsistence allowance.
assisted by muftis, whose
main duty was to interpret the law and
issue a fatwa.
Akbarâ€™s police administration was
divided into three categories of urban,
district and village police.
In all cities and towns kotwal headed
the local police. His main duty was to see
that the life of the city continued undisturbed.
Besides, he had to examine weights and measures,
keep an eye on the currency and enforce Akbarâ€™s social
personally held responsible for the value
of property stolen in case he failed to discover the thief.
The kotwal was
authorised to inflict punishment on
offenders. However, he was not empowered to inflict capital
In the district the law and order was maintained by the
main duties were the policing of the roads of
the district and suppressing of disorders of all kinds.
The village headman was responsible for policing at
the village level.