Revision Notes : Civil Services
(Prelims) Examination Special
Agrarian Structure in
lot of confusion about agrarian structure of
post-Gupta period exists, due to the contradictory
picture provided by several Smriti writers and
were several land grants, both secular and
religious in nature. The secular grants were mostly
towards the high officials while religious grants
were towards the Brahmins and the temples.
practice of land grants finally developed
feudalism. The peasant, who was initially free was
now under severe burden. There were several
intermediate classes of land owners.
was an increase in the forced labour, Vishti,
due to the emergence of
a â€œlanded aristocratic classâ€.
The peasants were mostly sudras. In fact,
peasants were thought of as sudras.
land was supposed to be under the State ownership,
but in practice individuals were owners of land.
categories of ownerships existed, like Sakta
(land owned by individuals), Prakrsta
(tilled by certain individuals), Kaustambakshetra
(fields owned by cultivators themselves).
a few land grants, villages are described as also
carrying with them the right towards all traders
living in it. The grants were rent-free.
Sasana, Chaturvaiya-grama, Brahmadeya,
etc are names of land grants. The rights were
Kashmiri ruler Shankaravarman used to usurp lands
from grant holders.
Harsha, cash payments were usually for military
land was granted only to brahmins.