(Paper) Philosophy : Main Examination

UPSC : Philosophy : Main Examination


History and Problems of Philosophy

Section A

1. Plato: Theory of Ideas.

2. Aristotle: Form, Matter and causation.

3. Descartes: Cartesian Method and certain knowledge, God, Mind-Body Dualism.

4. Spinoza: Substance, Attributes and Modes, Pantheism; Bondage and Freedom.

5. Leibnitz: Monads; Theory of Perception God.

6. Locke: Theory of Knowledge, Rejection of Innate Ideas; substance and qualities.

7. Berkeley: Immaterialism, God, Criticism of representative Theory of Perception.

8. Hume: Theory of knowledge, Scepticism, Self, Causality.

9. Kant: Distinctions between synthetic and analytic judgements and between apriori and aposteriori judgements, Space, Time Categories, Possibility of Synthetic Apriori Judgements, Ideas of Reason and Antinomies; Criticism of the Proofs for the Existence of God.

10. Hegel: Dialectical Method, Absolute Idealism.

11. Precursors of Linguistic Analysis: Moore (Defence of common sense, Reputation of idealism), Russell (Theory of Descriptions).

12. Logical Atomisms: Atomic Facts, Atomic sentences, Logical Constructions and Incomplete Symbols (Russell), Distinction of saying and showing (Wittgenstein).

13. Logical Positivism: Verification theory and rejection of Metaphysics, Linguistic Theory of Necessary Propositions.

14. Phenomenology: Husserl.

15. Existentialism: Kierkegaard, Sartre.

16. Quine: Radical empiricism.

17. Strawson: Theory of person..


Section B

1. Carvaka: Theory of Knowledge, Materialism.

2. Jainism: Theory of Reality, Saptabhangi Naya, Bondage and Liberation.

3. Buddhism: Pratityasamutpada, Ksanikavyda, Nairatmyavada, Schools of Buddhism, Sautrantika Theory of Pramana, Ideal of Bodhisattva.

4. Samkhya: Prakriti, Purusa, Theory of Causation, Liberation.

5. Naya-Vaisesika: Theory of Pramana, Self, Liberation, God and Proofs for Gods Existence, Categories, Theory of Causation, Atomistic theory of Creation.

6. Mimansa: Theory of Knowledge.

7. Vedanta: Schools of Vedanta, Sankara, Ramaunja, Madhva (Brahman, Isvara, Atman, Jiva, Jagat, Maya, Avidya, Adhyasa, Moksa).



Section A: Socio-Political Philosophy

I. Political Ideals: Equality, Justice, Liberty.

2. Sovereignty (Austin, Boidin, Laski, Kautilya).

3. Individual and State.

4. Democracy; Concept and forms.

5. Socialism and Marxism.

6. Humanism.

7. Secularism.

8. Theories of punishment.

9. Co-existence and violence; Sarvodaya.

10. Gender - Equality.

11. Scientific Temper and Progress.

12. Philosopliy of Ecology.


Section B: Philosophy of Religion

1. Notions of God: Personalistic, Imprsonalistic, Naturalistic.

2 Proofs for the Existence of God and their criticisms.

3. Immortality of Soul.

4. Liberation.

5. Problem of Evil.

6. Religious Knowledge: Reason, Revelation Mysticism.

7. Religion without God.

8. Religion and Morality.