(Paper) UPSC : IAS MAIN - 2007 (PHILOSOPHY - Paper - I And II)

UPSC :  IAS MAIN - 2007
(PHILOSOPHY - Paper - I And II)

Time Allowed: Three Hours
Maximum Marks: 300


Candidates should attempt all questions strictly in accordance with the instructions given under each questions. The number of marks carried by each question is indicated at the end of the question.


1. Write short notes on any three of the following in about 200 words each:                   (20x3=60)
(a) Plato's recollection theory of knowledge.
(b) Hegel's Dialectical method.
(c) Elimination of metaphysics at the hands of Logical Positivists.
(d) Nature of synthetic a-priori judgment according to Kant.
. State and discuss Locke's views on Substance.                                                                    (60)
State and discuss Russell's analysis of Definite Descriptions.                                                (60)
. State and discuss Strawson's theory of Person.                                                                    (60)


5. Write short notes on any three of the following in about 200 words each:                     (20x3=60)
(a) Nature of Pudgala in Jaina philosophy.
(b) Carvaka's views on the nature of soul.
(c) Four Arya Satya (Noble Truths) according to Buddhism.
(d) Nature of Sabda prammana.
State and explain the difference between Saguna and Nirguna Brahman.(60)
. Explain the Samkhya doctrine of three gunas.                                       (60)
Explain fully Nyaya's Asatkaryavada.                                                     (60)


Paper- II


1. Write critical notes on any THREE of the following in not more than 200 words each: -     (20x3=60)
(a) Free-market economy is the only way to attain social justice.
(b) Negative freedom can, perhaps, ensure freedom to choose, but without any credible assurance for itsactual fulfillment.
(c) Democracy that gives equal weight to every one's opinion is inefficient in determining the right or wrong
thing to do.
(d) 'Acceptance of authority of the state is inconsistent with the highest duty of mankind, "the duty to act
autonomously".' (Robert Paul Wolff)
Consider why punishment is generally thought to require justification. In this context give your critical and comparative account of the main theories of punishment.                                                     (60)
Describe your understanding of Socialism. Must it be defined in normative terms of a set of values and ideals which socialists seek to realize, or in descriptive terms of the specific economic and political institutions of socialist society? Can the tension between the two be adequately resolved? Discuss.    (60)
According to some Liberal Political thinkers social and economical inequalities can be justified only if theywork to the advantage of the least advantaged members of society. Is this view consistent with Liberalism's

cardinal advocacy of individual freedom? Discuss.        (60)


5. Write critical notes on any THREE of the following in not more than 200 words each: -         (20x3=60)
(a). Without some conception of immortality, religion has no meaning.
(b). 'God permitted evil to exist in order to bring about greater good; Adam's fall was a Felix culpa (happy sin).'Leibniz.
(c). God is not subject to the Laws of Logic.
(d). The difference between 'numinous' and 'mystical' experience.
. Traditionally omnipotence has been seen as one of the attributes of God. But according to some critics the notion of omnipotent being is paradoxical. In response some theists have tried to resolve the alleged paradox.Describe the paradox and explain the attempts to resolve it.                                             (60)
. State and evaluate the cosmological argument for the existence of God. What are its two forms? What is the difference between a dependent being and self existent being? Why the self-existent being be  Theocentric? Can't the nature itself be conceived as self-existent being? Discuss.                             (60)
. Explain the doctrine of the Law of Karma. Is it compatible with the freedom of the will? Discuss.     (60)