(Syllabus) Karnataka PSC: Gazetted Probationers Main Examination

Karnataka Public Service Commission

Syllabus For Civil Service Examination (Mains)

Agriculture, Agricultural Marketing Co-operation and Sericulture 01
Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Sciences and Fisheries 02
Botany 03
Chemistry 04
Civil Engineering 05
Commerce 06
Criminology 07
Economics 08
Electrical Engineering 09
Geography 10
Law 11
Mathematics 12
History 13
Mechanical Engineering 14
Philosophy 15
Geology 16
Physics 17
Political Science & International Relations 18
Psychology 19
Public Administration 20
Sociology 21
Statistics 22
Zoology 23
Rural Development & Co-operation 24
Hindi 25
Anthropology 26
Urdu 27
Kannada 28
English 29
Management 30

Note: The candidates are not allowed to offer the following combination of subjects

  • Political Science & International Relations/Public Administration
  • Commerce & Accountancy / Management
  • Anthropology / Sociology
  • Mathematics / Statistics
  • Agriculture, Agricultural Marketing Co-operation & Sericulture/Animal Husbandry & Veterinary Sciences & Fisheries
  • Civil Engineering/Electrical Engineering/Mechanical Engineering
  • Economics/Rural Development & Co-operation
  • Agriculture, Agricultural Marketing Co-operation & Sericulture/Rural Development & Co-operation
  • Hindi/Urdu/Kannada/English languages.

Syllabus For Gazetted Probationers’ Group `a’ & `b’
Main Examination
Part - B Main Examination

Compulsory Papers:- English

The aim of these papers is to test the ability of the candidates to read and understand serious discursive prose and to express ideas clearly and correctly in Kannada and English.

The pattern of questions would be broadly as follows:

Paper - II - English

  1. Comprehension of given passages - 25 marks

  2. Precis writing - 25 marks

  3. Usage - 25 marks

  4. Vocabulary - 25 marks

  5. Short Essay - 25 marks

  6. Communication Skills - 25 marks

Paper III - General Studies

  1. Modern History of India and Indian Culture with special reference to the History and Culture of Karnataka

  2. Current events of State, National and International importance

  3. Statistical Analysis, Graphs and Diagrams

Paper IV – General Studies

  1. Indian Polity with special reference to Karnataka State

  2. Indian Economy and Geography of India with Special reference to Karnataka Economy and Karnataka Geography

  3. The roll and impact of Science and Technology in the development of Karnataka and India.

Optional Subjects
Agriculture, Agricultural Marketing, Co-operation & Sericulture
(Subject Code-01)
Paper -1

Part - A: Agriculture:

Ecology and its relevance to man, natural resources, their management and conservation. Physical and social environments as factors of crop distribution and production, climatic elements as factors of crop growth, impact of changing environment on cropping pattern as indicators of environments, environmental pollution and associated hazards to crops, animals and humans.

Cropping patterns in different agro-climatic zones of the country, impact of high yielding and short duration varieties on shifts in cropping patterns, concepts of multiple cropping, multistory, relay and inter-cropping and their importance in relation to food production, Package of practices for production of important cereals, pulses, oilseeds, fibre, sugar and commercial crops, growth during KHARIF and RABI seasons in
different regions of the country.

Important features, Scope and propagation of various types of forestry plantations, such as extension / Social forestry, agro forestry and natural forests.

Weeds, their characteristics, dissemination and associaton with various crops; their multiplication, cultural, biological and chemical control of weeds.

Processes and factors of soil formation, Classification of Indian soils including modern concepts, Mineral and organic constituents of soils and their role in maintaining soil productivity, Problem soils, Extent and distribution in India and their reclamation, Essential plant nutrients and other beneficial elements in soils and plants, their occurrence, factors affecting their distribution, Functions and cycling in soils. Symbiotic and non-symbiotic nitrogen fixation, Phosphorus cycle, Principles of soil fertility and its evaluation for judicious fertilizer use.

Soil conservation; planning on Watershed basis, erosion and run off management in hilly, foot hills and valley land, processes and factors affecting them, dry land agriculture and its problems. Technology for stabilizing agriculture production in rainfed agricultural area.

Water use efficiency in relation to crop production, Criteria for scheduling Irrigations, ways and means of reducing run off losses of irrigation water; Drainage of waterlogged soils.

Farm management-scope, importance and characteristics, Agricultural Production Economics, farm planning and budgeting, economics of different types of fam systems, marketing and pricing of agricultural outputs, price fluctuations and their cost, role of co-operatives in agricultural economy; types and systems of farming factors affecting them.

Agricultural extension, its importance and role, Methods of evaluation of extention programmes, Socio economic survey and status of big, Small and marginal farmers and landless Agricultural labourers, Farm mechanization and its role in Agricultural production and rural employment, Training programmes for extension workers, Land to lab programmes.

Part - B : Sericulture :

Package of practices for mulberry cultivation in rainfed and irrigated conditions monocropping, intercropping etc. Foliar and root diseases of mulberry, mode of infection symptoms and control methods, Insect pests of mulberry, nature of damage, symptoms life cycle and control measures.

Silkworm rearing, sanitation, rearing house environment, leaf quality, improved techniques in silkworm rearing, transportation of cocoons, cocoon market, its role in cocoon transition.

Diseases of silkworm, etiology, symptoms, mode of infection, preventive and control measures of bacterial, viral, fungal and protozoan diseases of silkworm, Pests of silkworm, life cycle, preventive and control measures.

Silk reeling, methods of reeling on charka, cottage basin, filature basin, automic reeling, re-reeling, twisting and weaving, By-products of sericulture.

Economics of mulberry cultivation and silk worm rearing, methods of estimating cost of production of mulberry leaf and cocoon, returns from leaf and silk cocoons economics of leaf and shoot harvesting, income and employment generation from mulberry cultivation, cocoon production and reeling industry, economics of charaka and shoot rearing. Cost and Returns from different systems of silk reeling, charaka cottage basin and automatic reeling.

Part - C : Agricultural Marketing and Co-operation :

Marketing institutions for agricultural produce, TAPCMS, APMC, MARKFED, Marketing Boards. Marketing of livestock products and fish, Marketing of horticultural produce Grading of agricultural produce.

Co-operative institutions in India-Primary Societies, DCC Banks, Apex banks, Agriculture and Rural Development banks, non-agricultural co-operatives, Financial institutions providing agricultural credit-Co-operatives, commercial banks, NABARD, Repayment of loans. Problems of overdues and rural indebtedness.

Institutions facilitating marketing of agricultural produce Primary marketing Societies-Taluk Agricultural produce Co-operative Marketing Societies, Agricultural produce Marketing Committees, MARKFED, NAFED, Marketing Boards - Coffee Board, Tea Board, Spices Board etc. Marketing of live stock and livestock produce-Cattle, Sheep, Milk and milk products, eggs and Fish. Marketing of vegetables and fruits- Concept of HOPCOMS. Role of co-operation in Marketing of horticultural produce, Importance of grading of agricultural product, Grade characters of rice, wheat, jowar, groundnut and cotton. Co-operative institutions in India, Non-agricultural co-operatives, Handloom Weavers’ co-operatives, Housing co-operatives, Urban Co-operative banks etc.

Non co-operative institutions providing agricultural credit-commercial bank, Regional Rural Bank, NABARD, Nationalisation of banks, Role of commercial banks in agricultural development, Repayment of loans. Methods of repayment-single payment plan and amortization, Decreasing payment plan and even payment plan, Recovery of loans by financial institutions, Problems of overdues.

Part-A: Agriculture

Heredity and variation, Mendels law of inheritance, Chromosomal theory of inheritance, Cytoplasmic inheritance, sex linked, sex influenced and sex limited characters, Spontaneous and induced mutations.

Origin and domestication of field crops, Morphology patterns of variations in varieties and related species of important field crops, Causes and utilization of variations in crop improvement.

Application of the principles of plant breeding to the improvement of major field crops, Methods of breeding of self and cross pollinated crops, Introduction, selection, hybridization, heterosis and its exploitation, Male sterility and self incompatibility, Utilization of mutation and polyploidy in breeding.

Seed technology and its importance, Production, processing and testing of seeds of crop plants, Role of National and State seed organizations in production, processing and marketing of improved seeds.

Physiology and its significance in agriculture, Nature, Physical properties and Chemical constitution of protoplasm, Imbibition, Surface tension, Diffusion and Osmosis. Absorption and translocation of water, Transpiration of water economy.

Enzymes and plant pigments, Photosynthesis, Modern concepts and factors affecting the process, Aerobic and anaerobic respiration.

Growth and development of plants, Photo perlodism and vernalization, Auslns, Hormones and other plant regulators and their mechanism of action and importance in agriculture.

Climatic requirements and cultivation of major fruit plants and vegetable crops. Package of practices and the scientific basis for the same, handling and marketing problems of fruits and vegetables, Principal methods of preservation, Important fruit and vegetable products, Processing techniques and equipment, Role of fruits and vegetables in human nutrition. Landscape and floriculture including raising of ornamental plants and design and layout of lawns and gardens.

Diseases and pests of fields, vegetable, orchard and plantation crops of India and measures to control them, causes and classification of plant diseases, Principles of plant disease control including exclusion, eradication, immunization and protection, Biological control of pests and diseases. Integrated management of pests and diseases. Pesticides and their formulations, Plant protection equipments, their care and maintenance.

Storage practice of cereals and pulses, Hygiene of storage godowns, Preservation and remedial measures.

Strategies for maketing of agricultural inputs, Processing of agricultural products, Milk and oil-seeds federations, Food production and consumption trends in India, National and International food policies, Procurement, distribution, processing and production constraints, Relation of food production to national diatery pattern, Major deficiencies of calorie and protein.

Part - B : Sericulture

Seed Organisation, three tier multiplication programme, norms for maintenance of P3, P2 and P1 stocks, seed area advantages and disadvantages, seed legislation act, hibernation schedule for 6 and 10 months, role of LSPs in production of hybrid eggs, economics of silkworm egg production.

Recent development in non-mulberry sericulture, improved technology for the production of tasar, muga, eri and oak-tasar varieties, Economics of tasar, muga and ericulture.

Aims and methods of silkworm breeding, importance of Germ plasm bank, general and specific combining ability; sex linked varieties, role of heterosis in production of new breeds, evaluation of new varieties.

Mulberry breeding, importance of germ plasm bank, aims and methods of breeding, selection, hybridization, role of polyploidy in breeding programme, evaluation of new mulberry varieties.

Sericulture Extension; Extension education, different methods, Principles and objectives, role of private organizations in the development of sericulture, Role of Technical service centers in improvement of sericulture.

Part - C : Agricultural Marketing & Co-operation

Policies on marketing of agricultural products, storage, processing, transportation etc. Buffer stocking in India, Price policies for Output-minimum support price, Procurement price, Statutory minimum price, Commission on Agricultural costs and prices and its role, pricing of inputs for agriculture, Role of Government in pricing of inputs, subsidies on fertilizers, Public distribution system in India, Procurement, stocking and distribution, food subsidies and their impact on the economy, effect of food subsidy on poverty alleviation, problems in marketing of agricultural products and remedial measures, grading of live stock-cattle, sheep and goat, poultry and fish -Grading of livestock products-Ghee, eggs, chicken etc.

Role of Co-operatives in rural development-distribution of agricultural inputs, food grains, marketing of output through Co-operatives.

Agricultural project analysis, Preparation of project proposals in agriculture-crops, irrigation, plantations, dairy and poultry. Feasibility tests for projects, Technical feasibilities, financial feasibilities of projects, Compounding, discounting, net present value, benefit cost ratio, payback period and internal rate of return.

Websites: www.kpsc.kar.nic.in

Courtesy: kpsc.kar.nic.in

Karnataka Public Service Commission

Syllabus For Civil Service Examination (Mains)

Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Sciences and Fisheries (Subject Code-02)

(Part-A is compulsory for all candidates. In addition to Part-A. each candidate shall choose either Part-B or Part-C)


Dairy Production and Management, Comparison of Dairy Farming in India, with advanced countries, Economic Dairy Farming-housing, feeding, breeding and management of dairy animals.

Animal Nutrition-sources of energy, protein, minerals, vitamins and their metabolism. Deficiency of nutrients and their effect on the production performance of cattle, pig and poultry.

Semen collection, processing, preservation and artificial insemination in cattle and buffaloes.

Marketing of animal products in India, production, processing, packaging of milk, milk products and meat.

Major fish producing countries in the world, India’s fish production, Types of water bodies-marine, brackishwater and freshwater, Aquatic resources of India-seas, estuaries, rivers, lakes, reservoirs, tanks and ponds, Importance of fisheries in the economy of the country, Fisheries planning and administration, Export of marine products, Exclusive economic zone and fisheries legislation.

Part - B :

Animal nutrition-energy sources, metabolism and requirements for maintenance and production of milk, meat, egg and wool, evaluation of feed as a source of energy, Sources of protein, metabolism and requirements, Energy protein ratio, Vitamins, hormones and growth stimulating substances - sources, requirements and interrelationship with minerals.

Advanced animal nutrition, dairy cattle, nutrients and their metabolism with reference to milk production and its composition, Nutrient requirements for calves, heifer, dry and milking cows and buffaloes.

Nutrients and their metabolism with reference to poultry, meat and egg production.

Nutrient requirements and feed formulation in poultry. Non-ruminant nutrition, nutrients and their metabolism with special reference to growth and quality of meat production, Nutrient requirements and feed formulation for pigs.

Growth and animal production - prenatal and postnatal growth, maturation, measures of growth factors affecting growth, conformation, body composition.

Hormonal control of mammary gland development, milk secretion and milk ejection, composition of milk of cows and buffaloes.

Male and female reproductive systems and their functions, Semen quality, preservation and artificial insemination, Factors affecting semen preservation, composition of diluents, sperm concentration, transport of diluted semen, Frozen semen production, preservation and utilization, Embryo transfer technology, Dairy farmingdairying under mixed farming and as a specialized farming, economic dairy farming. Capital and land requirement for dairy farm.

Sheep, goat, pig and poultry farming problems and prospects of sheep, goat, pig and poultry farming in India, Economic meat and egg production, General problems of sheep, goat, pig and poultry management.

Organisation of rural milk procurement, collection and transport of raw milk, quality testing, grading raw milk, quality storage, grades of whole milk, skimmed milk and cream, legal standards, sanitation requirements for clean and safe milk and for milk plant equipment.

Part - C:

Taxonomy, anatomy and biology of commercially important finfish and snellfish, Major marine fisheries, sardines, mackerel, Bombay-duck, tunes, elasmobranchs, penaeid and nonpenaeid prawns, lobsters and molluscs, Fisheries of rivers, reservoirs, brackishwater lakes and estuaries and their management, Fish population biology, Physical, chemical and biological oceanography; upwelling, Limnology; nutrient cycle; food cycle.

Freshwater aquaculture, Carp seed production-induced breeding and bund breeding; different kinds of hatcheries, Carp seed transportation, Preparation and management of nurseries rearing and stocking ponds, Common aquatic weeds and their control, Eradication of predatory fishes and aquatic insects, Liming and fertilization, Supplementary feeding, Nutritional requirements of carps and prawns, Composite culture, Culture of cold water species, Fish diseases & treatment, Culture of penaeid and non-penaeld prawns, Life-history, Hatchery production of seed, Induced maturation, Seed transportation, preparation and management of production ponds, Common diseases and their treatment, Economics of carp and shrimp farming, Marlculture, culture of flnflsh In cages, Mussel, edible oysters, pearl oyster, clam and seaweed culture.


Part-A is compulsory for all candidates. In addition to Part-A, each candidate shall choose either Part-B or Part-C


Dairy Co-operative movement in India. Status of cross-breeding of cattle, sheep and pig in India, Draft animal power in India, important draft breed of Karnataka, their characters, utilization and preservation.

Fodder requirement in dairy cattle, fodder production and preservation, Feeding regime for young stock, bulls, heifers, breeding animals and pigs.

Extension methods adopted to educate farmers on dairy production, piggery, sheep and poultry production under rural conditions, Different possibilities and methods to provide self-employment to educated youth in rural areas.

Fish and snellfish, Protein nutritive aspects, Nutritive aspect of fish oil, vitamins and minerals, Fish in animal nutrition, Food poisoning caused by fish and fishery products, Polluted waters-contamination of fish, Salmonella problem in sea foods, Proximate composition of fish, Non-protein nitrogenous compounds, Important bacteria responsible for fish spoilage, products of spoilage.E. Coil as indicator of pollution and their significance in sea foods.

Part - B :

Genetics and Animal breeding, Probability applied to Mendelian inheritance, Concept and measurement of inbreeding and heterozygocity. Polygenic systems and laboritance of quantitative traits, heritability and reneatability, genetic and environmental Correlations, Gene frequency and its estimation and forces changing the gene frequency, Hardy Weinberg’s law, Genetic nature of difference between species, races and breeds, Resemblance between Breeding systems and mating systems, inbreeding, outbreeding, crossbreeding and its uses, Phenotypic assortative mating, Breeding for threshold traits, different types and methods of selection.their effectiveness and limitations, Evaluation of genetic gains through selection, General and specific combining ability.

Physiology of blood and circulation, respiration and excretion, Endocrine glands in health and diseases.

Most common cattle, sheep, goat, poultry and pig diseases, their etiology, symptoms, treatment and prevention, Milk product technology-selection of raw materials and assembly, Production,processing, storing, distributing and marketing of milk products

Testing, grading and judging milk products, ISI and Agmark specifications, legal standards, quality control and nutritive properties.

Meat hygiene: General principles and problems of meat inspection in India, diseases transmitted from animals to man, By-products from slaughter houses and their economic utilization, Jurisprudence of veterinary practice.

Part - C:

Post-mortem, changes in fish biochemical and microbiological spoilage of fish, Handling of fresh fish, on-board the vessel and at landing centers, sealing methods used for fresh fish-principles and importance.

Freezing of fish, historical developments, difference between chilling and freezing, methods of freezing, Freezents used in commerce, freezing curves, depression of freezing point, eutectic point. Mechanism of ice crystal formation and cell damage, rate of freezing, slow freezing versus quick freezing; advantages and quick freezing, Production styles of frozen fish, methods of thawing, thawing curve, glazing and packaging of frozen fish, quality of raw material and its effect on final products, Quality control method during processing and cold storage of sea foods.

Canning of fish - historical developments, advantages of canning compared to other methods, Raw material and submaterial characteristics and their suitability, General canning procedures, principles, of thermal processing, Method of canning, problems related to fish canning, Spoilage during storage, qualify standard, plant sanitation and waste disposal.

Fish products technology - principles and methods of preparation of various fish paste products like fish sausage, fish ham, etc., Importance of elasticity in fish paste products, Fish muscle proteins and their role in elasticity formation, Suitability of different varieties of fish for the preparation of fish paste products, additives and preservatives used and their role, Role of nitrites in meat curing, Production of minced meat-method of preparation, preservation and uses, marienading of fish, method of preparation, preservation and uses. Differences between marienading and pickling.

Fish meal production raw material, handling and preservation of raw material, preparation of fish meal, storage, its use in animal nutrition, Fish oil and its use in foods, Fish silage and its use in animal nutrition, Fish hydrolysates, fish protein concentrate, insulin, pearl essence, leather, fish glue, gelatin, chitin, chitosan, shark fin rays and fish maws - methods of preparation and uses, non-edible uses of fish oil. Seaweeds-proceesing and utilization.

Indigenous and mechanized fishing crafts in India, Types of fishing gears, Properties of fishing gear materials and their identification, Construction of net webbing - types of mesh and webbing, shaping of webbing, hanging ratios, hung depth, net mounting, mending of webbing, model testing methods for fishing gears, Types of otter boards used in trawling, Floats, buoys, hooks and sinkers-types and materials used, Deck equipments-winches, towing blocks, gallows, Net handling devices-power blocks, triplex drums, net reels, rollers, line hauler and gurdies, Commercial fishing methods-traveling, line fishing, seining, gill-netting, trap fishing.

Principles of refrigeration, uses of refrigeration, refrigeration tone, sensible heat, latent heat, specific heat, simple vapour compression refrigeration system, Different types of freezers and their uses, different types of icemaking plants and their uses, Refrigerants used in commercial refrigeration systems; properties of refrigerants; leak detection of refrigerants.

Botany (Subject Code-03)

1. Microbiology : Viruses, bacteria, plasmids, structure and reproduction, general account of infection and immunology, Microbes in agriculture, industry and medicine, and air, soil and water, control of pollution using microorganisms.

2. Pathology : Important plant diseases in India caused by viruses, bacteria, mycoplasma, fungi and nematodes. Modes of infection, dissemination, physiology and parasitism and methods of control, Mechanism of action of biocides, Fungal toxins.

3. Cryptogams : Structure and reproduction from evolutionary aspect, and ecology and economic importance of algae, fungi, bryophytes and pteridophytes, Principal distribution in India.

4. Phanerogams : Anatomy of wood, secondary growth, Anatomy of C3 and C4 plants, stomatal types. Embryology, barriers to sexual incompatibility, Seed Structure, Apomixis and Polyembryony, Palynology and its applications. Comparision of systems of classification of angiosperms, modern trends in biosystematics, Taxonomic and economic importance of Cycadaceae, Pinaceae, Genetales, Magnoliaceae, Ranunculaceae, Cruciferae, Rosaceae, Leguminosae, Euphorbiaceae, Malvaceae, Dipterocarpaceae, Umbelliferae, Asclepiadaceae, Verbenaceae, Solanaceae, Rubiaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Compositae, Gramineae, Palmae, Liliaceae, Musaceae and Orchidaceae. 5. Morphogenesis : Polarity, Symmetry and totipotency, differentation and dedifferentiation of cells and organs, factors of morphogenesis, Methodology and applications of cell, tissues, organ and protoplast cultures from vegetative and reproductive parts, Somatic hybrids.


1. Cell Biology : Scope and perspective general knowledge of modern tools and techniques in the study of cytology, Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, structural and ultrastructural details, functions of organelles including membranes, detailed study of mitosis and meiosis, numerical and structural variations in chromosome and their significance, study of polytene and lampbrush chromosomes structure, behaviour, and cytological significance.

2. Genetics and Evolution : Development of genetics and gene concept, structure and role of nucleic acids in protein synthesis and reproduction, Genetic code and regulation of gene expression, gene amplifications, mutation and evolution, Multiple factors, linkage and crossing over, methods of gene mapping, sex chromosomes and sexlinked inheritance, male sterility, its significance in plant breeding. Cytoplasmic inheritance, Elements of human genetics, standard deviation and Chisquare analysis, Gene transfer in microorganisms, Genetic engineering, Organic evolution, evidence, mechanism and theories.

3. Physiology and Biochemistry: Detailed study of water relations, Mineral nutrition and ion / transport, Mineral deficiencies, Photosynthesis - mechanism and importance, photosystems I and II, Photorespiration, Respiration and fermentation, Nitrogen fixation and nitrogen metabolism, protein synthesis, Enzymes, importance of secondary metabolites, Pigments as photoreceptors, Photoperiodism, flowering. Growth substances, their chemical nature, role and applications in agri-horticulture. Agrochemicals, Stress physiology, Vernalisation, Fruit and seed physiology, dormancy, storage and germination of seed, parthenocarpy, fruit ripening.

4. Ecology : Ecological factors, concept and dymanics of community, succession, concept of biospheres, Conservation of ecosystems, Pollution and its control, Forest types of India, Afforestation, deforestation and social forestry, endangered plants.

5. Economic Botany : Origin of cultivated plants, study of plants as sources of food, fodder and forage, fatty oils, wood and timber, fiber, paper, rubber, beverages, alcohol, drugs, narcotics, resins and gums, essential oils, dyes, mucilage, insecticides and pesticides, Plant indicators, Ornamental plants, Energy plantation.

Chemistry (Subject Code -4)

1. Atomic structure and chemical bonding, Quantum theory, Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle, Schrodingerwave equation (time independent), interpretation of the wave function, particle in a one-dimensional box, quantum numbers, hydrogen atom wave functions.

Shapes of s,p,d orbitals, ionic bond; Lattice energy, Born-Haber cycle, Fajans rules dipole moment, characteristics of ionic compounds, electronegativity differences, Covalent bond & its general characteristics, Valence bond approach, Concept of resonance and resonance energy, Electronic configuration of H2-2HN2 O2P2 NO.CO and HF molecules in terms of molecular orbital approach, Sigma and pi bonds, Bond order, bond strength & bond length.

2. Thermodynamics : Work, heat and energy, First law of thermo-dynamics, Enthalpy, heat capacity Relationship between Cp and Cv, Laws of thermochemistry, Kirchoff’s equation Spontaneous and non-spontaneous changes, second law of thermodynamics, Entropy changes in gases for reversible and irreversible processes, Third law of thermodynamics, Free energy, variation of free energy of a gas with temperature, pressure and volumes, Gibbs Helmhottz equation, Chemical potential, Thermodynamic criteria for equilibrium, Free energy change in chemical reaction and equilibrium-Constants, effect of temperature & pressure on chemical equilibrium, calculation of equilibrium constants from thermodynamic measurements.

3. Solid State : Forms of solids, law of constancy of interfacial angles, Crystal systems and crystal classes (crystallographic groups) Designation of crystal faces, lattice structure and unit cell Laws of rational indices, Bragg’s law, X-ray diffraction by crystals, Defects in crystals, Elementary study of liquid crystals.

4. Chemical Kinetics : Order and Molecularity of a reaction, Rate Equations (differential & integrated forms) of zero, first and second order reactions, half life of a reaction, Effect of temperature, pressure and catalysts on reaction rates, Collision theory of reaction rates of bimolecular reactions, Absolute reaction rate theory, Kinetics of polymerization and photo-chemical reactions.

5. Electrochemistry: Limitations of Arrhenlus theory of dissociation, Debye-Huckel theory of strong electrolytes and Its quantitative treatment, Electrolytic conductance theory and theory of activity co-efficient Derivation of limiting laws for various equilibria and transport properties of electrolyte solutions.

6. Concentration Cells: liquid junction potential, application of e.m.f. measurements of fuel cells.

7. Photochemistry : Absorption of light, lambert Beer’s laws of photochemistry. Quantum efficiency, Reasons for high and low quantum yields, Photo-electric cells.

8. General chemistry of ‘d’ block elements.
(a) Electronic configuration, introduction to theories of bonding in transition, metal complexes, Crystal field Theory and its modifications, applications of the theories in the explanation of magnetism and electronic spectra of metal complexes.
(b) Metal Corbonyls : Cyclopentadienyl, Olefin and acetylene complexes.
(c) Compounds with metal-metal bonds and metal atom clusters.

9. General Chemistry of f block elements : Lanthanides and actinides; Separations, Oxidation states, magnetic and spectral properties.

10. Reactions in non-aqueous solvents (liquid ammonia and sulphur dioxide).


1. Reaction Mechanisms: General methods (both kinetic and non-kinetic) of study of mechanisms of organic reactions illustrated by examples, Formation and stability of reactive intermediates (Carbocations, carbanions, free radicals, carbenes, nitrenes and benaynes).

SN1 and SN2 mechanisms - H1, H2 and E1 CB eliminations - cis and trans addition of carbon to carbon double bonds - mechanism of addition to carbon oxygen, double-Michael addition-addition to conjugated carbon-carbon double bonds-aromatic electrophilic and nucleophilic substitutions, allylic and benzylic; substitutions.

2. Pericyclic reactions : Classification and examples .- and elementary study of woodward - Hoffmann rules of pericyclic reactions.

3. Chemistry of the following name reactions : Aldol condensation, Claisen condensnation, Dieck men reaction, Perkin reaction, Reimer-Tiemann reaction, Cennizzaro reaction.

4. Polymeric Systems :
(a) Physical Chemistry of Polymers, End group analysis, Sedimentation, Light Scattering and Viscosity of Polymers.
(b) Polythylene, Polystryene, Polyvinyl Chloride, Ziegler Natta Catalysis, Nylon, Terylene.
(c) Inorganic Polymeric systems; Phosphonitric halide compounds; Silicones; Borazines. Friedel - Craft reaction, Reformatsky reaction, Pinacol - Pinacolons, Wagner - Meerwein and Beckmann rearrangements, and their mechanisms - uses of the following reagents in organic systhesis: 05 04 HI04, NBS, diborane, Naliquid -ammonia, NaBH4, LiA LH4.

5. Photochemical reactions of organic and inorganic compounds : Types or reactions and examples and synthetic uses-Methods used in structure determination; Principles and applications of UV,visible, IR, NMR and mass spectra for structure determination of simple organic and inorganic molecules.

6. Molecular Structural determinations : Principles and Applications to simple organic and in-organic Molecules.
(i) Rotational spectra of diatomic molecules (infrared and Raman), isotopic substitutions and rotational constants,
(ii) Vibrational spectra of diatomic linear symmetric, liner asymmetric and bent tri-atomic molecules (infrared and Raman).
(iii) Specificity of the functional groups (Infrared and Raman).
(iv) Electronic Spectra-Singlet and triplet states, conjugated double bonds, A aB unsaturated carbonyl compounds.
(v) Nuclear magnetic Reasonance: Chemical Shifts, spin-spin coupling, (vi) Electron Spin Reasonance; Study of inorganic Complexes and free radicals.

Civil Engineering (Subject Code - 05)


(a) Theory of Structures Energy theories - Castrigliano theorems I and II, unit load method and method of consistant deformation applied to beams and pinpointed plane frames, Slope deflection, moment distribution and Keni method of analysis applied to indeterminate beams and rigid frames.

Moving loads, oriteries for maximum sheer force and bending Moment in means traversed by a system of moving loads, Influence lines for simply supported planes, pinjointed girders.

Arches: Three hinged, two hinged and fixed arches-rib, shortending and temperature effects Influence lines.

Matrix Methods of Analysis : Force method and displacement method.

(b) uctural Steel: Factors of safety and load factors.

Design of tension and compression members, beams of built up section, riveted and welded plate girders, gantry girders, stanchions with battena and lacings, Slab and gusseted bases

Design of highway and railway bridges -Through and deok, type plate girder, Warren girder and Parttruss.

(c) Reinforced concrete. Limit state method design-Recommendations of IS codes, Design of one-way and two-way slabs, simple and continuous beams of rectangular, T and L sections.

Compression chambers under direct load with or without eccentricity, footings, Isolated and combined.

Rataining walls, antilever and counterfort types.

Methods and systems of prestressing Anchorages, Analysis and design of sections for flexurs, loss of prestress.


Fluid properties, and their role in fluid motion, fluid statics including forces acting on plane and cured surfaces.

Kinematics and Dynamics and Flund Flow, Velocity and accelerations, stream lines, equation of continuity, irrotational and rotational flows, velocity potential and stream function flownets and methods of drawing flow net, sources and sinks, flow separation and stagnation.

Euler’s equation of motion, energy and momentum equations and their applications to pine flow, free and forced vortices, plane and curved stationery and moving vanes, sluice gates, weirs, orifioe meters and venture meters.

Dimensional Analysis and Similitude; Buckingham’s Pitheorem, similarities, model laws, undistorted and distorted models, movable bed models, model calibration.

Laminar Flow : Laminar flow between parallel, stationary and moving plates, flow through tube, Reynold’s experiments, lubrication principles.

Boundary Layers : Laminar and turbulent boundary layer on a flat plate, laminar sublayer, smooth and rough boundaries, drag and lift.

Turbulent flow through pipes: Characteristics of turbulent flow, velocity distribution and variation of friction factor, hydraulic grade line and total energy line, siphons, expansions and contractions in pipes, pipe net works water hammer;

Opern Channel Flow: Uniform and non-uniform flows, specific energy and specific force, critical depth, resistance equations and variation of roughness coefficient; Rapidly varied flow, flow varied flow, flow in contractions, flow at suddent drop, hydraulic jump and its applications, surges and waves; gradually varied Flow differential equation for gradually varied flow, classification of surface profiles, control section, step method of integration of varied flow equation.


Soil composition, influence of clay minerals on engineering behaviour, Effective stress principles, change in effective stress due to water flow condition, static water table and steady flow conditions, permeability and compressibility of soils.

Strength behaviour, strength determination through direct and triaxial tests, total effective stress strength parametered, total and effective strice paths.

Methods of site exploration, planning a sub surface exploration programme; sampling procedured and sampling disturbance, penetration tests and plate load tests and date interpretation.

Foundation types and selection, footings, rafts, piles, floating foundations, effect of footing shapes, dimensions, depth of embedment, load inclination and ground water on bearing capacity, settlement components, compatation for immediate and consolidation settlements, limits on total and differential settlement, correction for rigidity.

Deep foundations, philosophy of deep foundations, piles, estimation of individuals and group capacity, static and dynamic approaches, pils load tests, separation into skin friction and point bearing under reamed piles, well foundation for bridges and aspects of design.

Earth pressure, states of plastic equilibrium, Culmann’s procedure for determination of lateral, thrust; determination of anchor force and depth of penetration, reinforced earth retaining walls; concept, materials, and applications.

Machine foundations modes of vibrations, determination of natural frequency, crieteria for design, effect of vibration on soils, vibration isolation.


Types of computers, components of computers, history and development, different languages.

Fortran / Basic programming, constants, variables, expressions, arithmetic statements, library functions, control statements, unconditional GO-TO statements, computed GO-To statements, IF and DO statements, Continue, Call, Return, Stop, END Statements, I/Q statements, Formats, field specifications.

Subscripted variables, arrays, Dimension Statement, function and subroutine, subprogrammes, application to simple problems with flow-charts in Civil engineering.


Part - A Building Constructions :

Physical and mechanical properties of construction materials, factors influencing selection, brick and clay products, limes and cements, polymeric materials and special uses, damp-proofing materials.

Brickwork for walls, types, cavity walls, design of brick masonary walls as per I.S. Code, factors of safety, service, ability and strength requirements, detailing of walls, floors, roofs, ceiling, finishing of building, plastering, pointing, painting.

Functional planning of building, orientation of buildings, elements of fire - proof construction, repairs to damaged and cracked buildings; use of ferro cement, fibre reinforced and polymer concrete in construction; techniques and materials for low cost housing.

Building estimates and specifications, construction scheduling, PERT and CPM methods.

Part - B Transportation Engineering :

Railway: Permanent way, ballast, sleeper, fastenings, points and crossing, different types of turn outs, cross-over, setting out of points.

Maintenance of track, superelevation, creep of rail ruling gradients, track resistance, tractive effort =curve resistance.

Station yeards and machinery, station building, platform siding, turn tables, signals and interlocking, level crossings.

Roads and Railways, Traffic engineering and traffic surveys, intersections, road signs, signals and marking.

Classification of roads, planning and geometric design.

Design of flexible and rigid pavements, Indian Roads Congress guidelines on payment layers and design methodologies.

Part - C Water Resources and irrigation Engineering :

Hydrology, Hydrologic cycle, precipitation, evaporation, transpiration, depression, storage, infiltration, hydrograph, unit hydrograph, frequency analysis, flood estimation.

Ground Water Flow: Specific yield, storage co- fficient, co-efficient of permeability, confined and unconfined aquifers, radial flow into a well under confined and unconfined conditions, tubewells, pumping and recuperation tests, ground water potential.

Water Resources Planning : Ground and surface water resources, single and multipurpose projects, storage capacity of reservoirs, reservoir losses, reservoir sedimentation, flood routing through reservoirs, economics of water resources projects.

Water Requirement for Crops : Consumptive use of water, quality of irrigation water, duty and delta, irrigation methods and their efficiencies.

Canal : Distribution system for canal irrigation, canal capacity, canal losses, alignment for main and distributary canals, most efficient section; lined channels, their design regime theory, critical shear stress, bed load, local and suspended load transport, cost analysis of lined and unlined canals, drainage behind lining.

Water Logging : Causes and control, drainage, system design salinity.

Canal Structures: Design of regulation, cross drainage and communication works, cross regulators, head regulators, canal fails, aqueducts, metering flumes and canal outlets.

Diversion Head Works : Principles of design of weirs on permeable and impermeable foundations, Khosla’s theory, energy dissipation, stilling basins, sediment exclusion.

Storage works : Types of dams, design, principles of rigid gravity and earth dams, stability analysis, foundation treatment, joints and galleries, control of seepage, construction methods and machinery.

Spillways : Types, crest gates, energy dissipation.

River Training : Objectives of river training, methods of river training.

Part - D Environmental Engineering :

Water Supply : Estimation of water resources, ground and surface water, ground water hydraulic, predicting demand of water, impurities of water and their significance, physical, chemical and bacteriological analysis, water born diseases, standards for potable water.

Intake of Water : Pumping and gravity schemes, Water treatment, Principles of coagulation, flocculation and sedimentation; slow, rapid, pressure, biflow and multimedia ilters, chlorination, softening, removal of taste, odour and salinity Water storage and balancing reservoirs types, location and capacity.

Distribution Systems: Layout, hydraulics of pipelines, pipe fittings, valves including check and pressure reducing valves, meters, analysis of distribution systems using Hardy Cross method, general principles of optimal design based on cost headloss ratio criterion, lead detection, maintenance of distribution systems, pumping stations and their operations. Sewerage Systems : Domestic and industrial wastes, storm sewage, separate
and combined systems, flow through sewers, design of sewers, sewer appurtenances, manholes, inlets, junctions, siphon.

Sewege Characterisation : BOD, COD. Solids, dissolved oxygen, nitrogen and TOC. Standards of disposal in normal water course and on land. Sewege Treatment : Working principles, units, chambers, sedimentation tank, trickling filters, oxidation ponds, activated sludge process, septic tank, disposal of sludge, recycling of waste water.

Solid Waste : Collection and disposal.

Environmental Pollution : Ecological balance, water pollution control acts, radio active wastes and disposal, environmental impact assessment for thermal power plants, mines.

Sanitation : Site and orientation of buildings; ventilation and damp proof courses, house drainage, conservancy and water born system of waste disposal, sanitary appliances, latrines and urinals, rural sanitation.

Websites: www.kpsc.kar.nic.in

Courtesy: kpsc.kar.nic.in