(Syllabus) MPPSC : Syllabus For Anthropology Mains Examination (Optional)

Madhya Pradesh Public Service Commission
Syllabus For Indian Anthropology Mains Examination (Optional)


NOTE - Part - I is compulsory. Candidates may opt either Part- II (A) or Part - II (B). Each part (i.e. I and II) carries 150 marks.


1. Meaning and scope of Anthropology and its main branches
(1) Social-Cultural Anthropology
(2) Biological Anthropology.
(3) Archeological Anthropology.
(4) Linguistic Anthropology.

2. Concept of culture and it attributes
Ethos & Edos, Cultural Integration, Form and Content, Cultural Relativism. Aspects of culture : Material & non-material. Meaning of Society, Community, Group and Institution, Culture and Civilization.

3. The field work Tradition in Anthropology, Geneological method, Observation, Case-study, Interview Schedule and Questionnaire.

4. Organic Evolution
Views and evidences, Theories of Organic Evolution : Darwinism, Neo-Darwinism, Lamarckism, Neo-Lamarckism, Synthetic Theory.

5. Man's position in the animal kingdom, Physical Characteristics of mammals and primate, Geographical distribution and chief Physical characteristics of prosimii (Lemuriforms, Lorisiforms and Torsiforms), Anthropoidea (New world monkeys and old world monkeys), Pongidae (Gibbon, Orang-Utan, Chimpanzee, Gorilla).

6. Geological Time-scale, The Great lce-Age
Extent, Flora & Fauna, Evidences and Causes of occurrence of the lce Age. Pluvials and inter-pluvials, Methods of dating : Absolute and Relative.

7. Prehistoric cultural hierarchy
General features of Paleo, meso and neolithic cultures of Europe and India (with special reference to Soan, Madrasian and Narmada stratigraphies and tool- raditions) Mesolithic pattern in India. Neolithic Complex and associated problems in India.

8. Proto-Historic hierarchy
Indus valley civilization, Ganges valley civilization (Doaba), Megalithic civilization.

9. Language, Society and Culture - How are they interrelated ?


1. Social Institutions
Definition of marriage, Forms of marriage : Monogamy, Polygamy, Endogamy, Exogamy. Marriage payments : Dowry and bride-price, Definition of family, Types of family : Nuclear, Extended, Joint family. Patterns of residence : Uxorilocal, Virilocal and Neolocal, Descent system: matriliny and patriliny. Definition and nature of kinship, Kinship terminology, Kinship usages, Kin-groups : Lineage, Clan, Phratry and Moiety

2. Primitive Economy
The relationship between primitive economy and natural environment, modes of production, Primitive ways of exchange and distribution: Barter, ceremonial exchange, Reciprocity and Redistribution, Market exchange, Concept of value. Distinctions between primitive economy and modern economy.

3. Political Organization
Primitive law and Political organization, distinctions between state and stateless societies, Leadership, authority and system in stateless society, natural and cultural background of law in primitive and modern societies. Means of social control in primitive societies.

4. Definition and theories of religion
Animism, Animatism, Manaism, Totemism, Durkeim's sociological theory of religion. Taboo, Functions of religion, Shamans and priests, Types of magic, Religion, Magic and science.

5. Concepts and theories
Evolution and socio- cultural evolutionism (L.H. Morgan, E.B. Tylor), Diffusion and diffusionism (German-Austrian) Pattern and pattern based theory of culture (R. Benedict) Function and functionalism (B. Malinowski), Structure- functionalism (A.R. Radcliffe -Brown)

6. Psychological Anthropology
Culture - personality school, Basic personality and modal personality. National character studies.

7. Growth of Anthropology in India
Major contributions of D.N. Majumdar, M.N. Srinivas, S.C. Dube and L.P. Vidyarthi.


1. Fossil evidence of Human Evolution
Dryopithecus, Ramapithecus, The hominid members of Australopithecinae, Homo-erectus : Pithecanthropus erectus(Jawa man), Sinanthropus Pekinensis (China man), Homo-Neanderthalensis : Progressive and conservative, Heidelberg man, Homo-sapiens : Cro- Magnon, Chancelade, Grimaldi.

2. Comparative anatomy of Man and Apes, Types of locomotion, The effect of erect posture on the skeleton of man with special reference to skull, Vertebral column, Pelvic girdle and limbs.

3. Human Genetics : aims and scope, Cell
Cell division, Role of mitotic and meiotic cell division, Laws of heredity, Mechanism of heredity, Types of inheritance : autosomal, sex linked, dominant and recessive, chromosomes and genes: normal and abnormal chromosomes, Sex-chromosomal aberrations : Klinefelter, Turner and Down syndrome, Concept of DNA and RNA.

4. Difficulties in studying human genetics, methods of investigation in human genetics: population genetics, biochemical genetics and cytogenetics; twin methods, pedigree method, Inheritance of A, B, O blood groups and PTC, Genetic counselling, cloning.

5. Human growth and development
Definition and scope, Methods of studying human growth : Longitudinal, semi-longitudinal and cross-sectional, Retarded growth,Growth spurt, Ageing, Nutritional requirements for normal growth, Malnutrition, Under-nutrition.

6. Ecology
Definition and scope, Varieties of human ecosystems, Environmental pollution, Biological demography: definition and scope, Demographic profiles: Fertility, Mortality, Morbidity.

7. Definition of race, Genetic concept of race, UNESCO statement of Race, Formation of Racial groups, Criteria for Racial classification: genetic and morphological characters, Major races of the world and their broad subdivisions, Racial elements in Indian population.


1. Basic concepts
Culture, civilization, Great Tradition, Little tradition, sacred complex, Universalization, parochialization, sanskritization, Westernization, Dominant caste, Folk- ociety, Jajmani system, Tribe-caste continuum.

2. India's traditional social system
Purusharth Chatushthaya, Varanahramdharma, Hindu social laws pertaining to family and marriage, Social disabilities and the problem of untouchability.

3. Problems of exploitation and deprivation of scheduled tribes, Scheduled castes and other backward classes. Constitutional safeguards for scheduled castes and scheduled tribes.

4. Ethnographic profiles of Indian tribes
Racial, linguistic and socio-economic characteristics. Problems of tribal people : Land alienation, Indebtedness, bonded labour. Foodgathering, Pastoralism, Shifting cultivation, Terrace cultivation and  ettled agriculture, Forest policy and tribals, Tribal displacement and rehabilitation.

5. The problems of culture contact
Impact of urbanization and industrialization on tribals. Tribal movements. Naxalism and tribals. Impact of the Hinduism, Islam and Christianity on tribes.

6. History of tribal administration and development
Pattern of tribal administration during the British and the post British periods. Plans, policies and strategies of tribal development in post Independence period. The response of tribal people towards government's measures for their development.

7. Youth dormitories, Evaluation of contemporary system of tribal education and measures for improvement in it. Panchayati Raj and tribal development. N.G.Os and tribal welfare. The role of Anthropology in tribal development.