(Syllabus) Maharashtra PSC: Psychology : Revised Syllabus for State Services (Main) Examinati

Maharashtra PSC: Psychology : Revised Syllabus for State Services (Main) Examination (Optional)

Psychology (Code No : 211) Paper – I
Fundamentals of Psychology
Standard : Degree

Total Marks : 200
Nature of Paper : Conventional Type
Duration : 3 Hours

1) Answers to this paper must be written either in English or in Marathi.
2) This paper will test the candidate’s ability to comprehend, to analyse, to interpret, to criticise and to appraise the subject matter related to the topics/sub topics mentioned below.
3) It is expected from candidates to study the latest and recent developments and happenings pertaining to the topics/sub topics mentioned below.

Section - A (Marks : 50)
1) Introduction :
    1) Psychology as a science : nature and definition.
    2) Basic Perspectives - biological, psychodynamic, cognitive, behavioural, humanistic.
    3) Psychology in relation to other social sciences.
    4) Using interdisciplinary approach to the study of human behaviour.

2) Methods of Study in Psychology :
    1) The Correlation method (knowledge through systematic observation) and Experimentation (knowledge through systematic intervention).
    2) Different Research Methods in Psychology - archival research, naturalistic observation, survey research, the case study, experimental research (laboratory and field experiments).

3) The Process of Psychological Research :
    1) Types of Research : fundamental v/s. applied.
    2) Steps involved in the psychological research-
        a) Statement of the problem- Hypothesis etc.
        b) Design of research study (laboratory study, quasi-experiment or field experiment, ex-post-facto research).
        c) Sampling and data collection.
        d) Analysis of data (statistical techniques - t test, one-way ANOVA, correlation and regression analysis, Chi-square).
        e) Conclusion from research.

Section – B (Marks : 50)
4) Attention and Perception:
    1) Attention process - determinants - external and internal, selective attention - filter theory, multimode theory.
    2) Perception - Gestalt laws of organization, feature analysis - focusing on the parts of the whole (top-down and bottom-up process).
    3) Perceptual constancy, depth perception, motion perception.
    4) Subliminal perception, perceptual defence, extra-sensory perception (process of Psi).
    5) The plasticity of perception – to what extent is it innate or learned ?

5) Learning :
    1) Concept and nature of learning.
    2) Basic forms of learning :
        a) Classical conditioning and its applications.
        b) Operant conditioning (nature and principles of operant conditioning and its applications.)
        c) Social learning (learning through imitation - modelling, basic principles and applications.)

6) Memory :
    1) Concept and nature of memory - encoding, storage and retrieval.
    2) Three systems of memory - sensory memory, short-term memory and long-term memory.
        a) Sensory memory : iconic and echoic memory.
        b) Short-term memory : chunk (transfer and storage of seven plus or minus two chunks to short-term memory), rehearsal, working memory.   
        c) Long-term memory (the final store house) : the modules of memory - declarative memory (semantic and episodic memory) and procedural memory, explicit and implicit memory, level of processing theory.

    3) Recalling long-term memory - retrieval cues, flash bulb memories, constructive processes in memory - schemas.
    4) Forgetting - memory trace, interference (proactive and retroactive interference).

Section - C (Marks : 50)
7) Human Development :
    1) Biological contribution – the role of heredity, the role of brain.
    2) Cultural influence, impact of family, the socialization process, the immediate situational impact.
    3) Development across the entire life span - Erikson’s eight stages of life.
    4) Social change in adulthood - tasks and stages of adult life, Levinson’s stages of adult life.
    5) Parenting and social development.
    6) Aging and death : theories of aging (wear and tear, genetic theories), meeting death - facing the end of life.

8) Motivation and Emotions :
    1) The concept of motivation, components of motivation - needs and incentives.
    2) Theories of motivation : instinct theory, drive reduction theory, arousal theory, cognitive theory, need-hierarchy theory.
    3) Primary drives and secondary drives (achievement, affiliation and power)
    4) Emotions : the concept of emotions, functions of emotions.
    5) Theories of emotion : James-Lange theory, Canon-Bard theory, Schachter and Singer theory.
    6) Physiological reactions in emotions, external expressions of emotions (facial expressions, body language - gestures, posture and movement).

9) Personality :
    1) Personality – Concept, Nature & development.
    2) Theories of personality (psychoanalytic approach, trait approach, learning approach, social-cognitive approach, humanistic approach).
    3) Measurement of personality (projective test, self-report inventories).
    4) Indian approach : Triguna theory, the concept of Sthitaprajna (a man of settled wisdom).
    5) Personality development through training.

10) Attitudes and Values :
    1) The concept of attitude and its components.
    2) Forming and maintaining attitudes.
    3) Measuring attitudes (attitude scales).
    4) Persuasion - changing attitudes.
    5) The concept of values.
    6) Types of values and their impact on behaviour.
    7) Fostering attitudes and values - strategies.

Section - D (Marks : 50)
11) Cognition - Thinking, Decision Making and Problem Solving :
    1) Thinking : concept and nature, mental images.
    2) Concepts : categorizing, prototypes, artificial and natural concepts.
    3) Problem solving : steps involved.
        a) Preparation.
        b) Production and judgment.
        c) Generating solutions - trial and error, means-end-analysis, sub goals, insight.

    4) Creativity : Definition of creativity, divergent and convergent thinking, and fostering creativity.
    5) Decision making : heuristics (availability, representativesness, anchoring, framing and escalation of commitment).

12) Intelligence :
    1) Nature of intelligence - is intelligence unified or multifaceted ? - views of Spearman, Thurstone, Cattell, Gardner, Guilfold.
    2) Information processing approach – Stenberg’s triarchic theory.
    3) Measuring human intelligence - concepts of IQ and mental age, nature of intelligence tests.
    4) Individual differences in intelligence - role of heredity and environment.
    5) Emotional intelligence : the concept of emotional intelligence and its measurement.

13) Language and Communication :
    1) Language - basic nature : production of speech (phonemes, morphemes and syntax), speech comprehension, surface structure and deep structure.
    2) Development of language : theories (learning theory - Skinner, universal grammar and language acquisition device - Chomsky)
    3) Language and thought : linguistic reality hypothesis.
    4) Communication : nature of communication process, making communication effective.

14) Emerging Trends :
    1) Use of computers in the psychological experimentation and testing.
    2) Artificial Intelligence.
    3) Psychocybernatics.
    4) States of consciousness : sleep-wake schedules.
    5) Hypnosis - its use in therapy and individual development.
    6) Meditation - its use in stress management and improving the sense of well-being.

Psychology : Fields of Application
Standard : Degree

Total Marks : 200
Nature of Paper : Conventional Type
Duration : 3 Hours

1) Answers to this paper must be written either in English or in Marathi.
2) This paper will test the candidate’s ability to comprehend, to analyse, to interpret, to criticise and to appraise the subject matter related to the topics/sub topics mentioned below.
3) It is expected from candidates to study the latest and recent developments and happenings pertaining to the topics/sub topics mentioned below.

Section - A (Marks : 50)
1) Psychological Measurement of Individual Differences :
    1) The nature of individual differences.
    2) Basic requirements for all psychological tests - reliability, validity, norms, standardization.
    3) Types of psychological tests.
    4) Uses and limitations of psychological tests.
    5) Ethical issues and socio-cultural biases in IQ and other tests.

2) Well-being and Mental Health :
    1) The concepts of mental health and well-being.
    2) Psychological disorders - anxiety, mood disorders, personality disorders, substance abuse disorders, schizophrenia and delusional disorders.
    3) Determinants of disorders, positive health and life style.

3) Approaches to the Treatment of Psychological Disorders :
    1) Psychodynamic approach.
    2) Behavioural approach.
    3) Cognitive approach.
    4) Humanistic approach.
    5) Indian approaches – Yoga and Vipassana.
    6) Prevention of mental illness and rehabilitation of mentally ill.

4) Community Psychology :
    1) Community psychology nature and scope.
    2) Role of community psychologists in social change.
    3) Arousing community consciousness and action for handling social problems.
    4) Role of leadership in group decision making for social change.

Section - B (Marks : 50)
5) School and Counselling Psychology :
    1) Applying psychological principles to classroom teaching and learning.
    2) Learning styles of intellectually exceptional and mentally retarded.
    3) Special education for mentally disabled.
    4) Value Education and personality development of students.
    5) Counselling for improving memory and academic performance.
    6) Counselling students to cope with stresses.
    7) Counselling students to adjust with school environment.
    8) Vocational Guidance and career counselling.
    9) Using psychological tests in counselling and Scholastic performance.

6) The Role of Psychology in Information Technology and Mass Media :
    1) Current status of the field of IT and Mass Media and the role of psychology in it.
    2) Selection and training of professional psychologists who are desirous of working in the field of IT and Mass Media.
    3) Distance learning process through IT and Mass Media : Scope and limitations.
    4) Entrepreneurship through e-commerce.
    5) Effect of TV on behaviour of people; fostering moral values through IT and Mass Media.
    6) Psychological consequences of recent advancements in IT.

7) Psychology Applied to Social Integration:
    1) Psycho- Social integration and multiculturalism.
    2) The problem of intergroup conflicts due to caste, class, religion and language discrimination.
    3) The concept of prejudice and its origins (direct intergroup conflict; social categorization; the role of social learning and stereotypes).
    4) Reducing prejudice and discrimination (learning not to hate, direct intergroup contact, re-categorization - to reduce the “we-they” feeling between the in-group and out-group members).

Section - C (Marks : 50)
8) Work Psychology, Organisational Behaviour and Psychology Applied to Marketing :
    1) Personnel selection and evaluation of employee performance.
    2) Training and HRD - employee training and management development.
    3) Work Motivation - nature and concept of work motivation, theories of work motivation (need hierarchy, two-factor theory and expectancy theory).
    4) Leadership - the concept of leadership; what makes a leader successful (trait, behavioural and contingency approaches).
    5) Advertising and marketing : psychological appeal and other factors affecting advertising effectiveness and marketing strategies.
    6) Consumer Behaviour - consumer needs and motivation; psychological factors in consumer buying behaviour (learning experiences, personality, attitudes and beliefs, self-concept).

9) Military and Police Psychology :
    1) Role of psychology in the military services : psychological warfare; motivation and morale of defence personnel.
    2) Role of Psychology in the Police services :
        a) Motivation and morale of police personnel
        b) Understanding criminal behavior and corrective measures.
        c) Types, causes and interventions with respect to – Crime against women, Suicide, Homicide.
        d) Psychological aspects in riot management.

    3) Psychological counselling of Defence personnel and Police personnel .

10) Psychology and Economic Development :
    1) Achievement, motivation and economic development.
    2) Basic attributes of entrepreneurial behaviour.
    3) Motivating and training people to take up entrepreneurial role.
    4) Promoting entrepreneurship among women.
    5) Consumer rights and consumer laws.

11) Environmental Psychology :
    1) Effects of noise, temperature and environmental toxins on human behaviour.
    2) Architectural psychology - concept and nature; territoriality; personal space; crowding.
    3) Psychological consequences of population explosion and high population density.
    4) Motivating people to adopt small family norms.
    5) The phenomenon of global warming; adverse effect of rapid scientific and technological development on the environment and human behaviour.

Section - D (Marks : 50)
12) Rehabilitation Psychology :
    1) Role of psychologists in prevention programmes and in promotion of well-being.
    2) Initiating rehabilitation programmes for physically challenged, mentally retarded and socially disadvantaged persons.
    3) Rehabilitating the victims of substance abuse, juvenile delinquency, criminal behaviour and violence.
    4) Rehabilitation of HIV/AIDS victims.

13) Application of Psychology to Disadvantaged Groups :
    1) The concept of disadvantaged and socially deprived.
    2) Socio-economic and psychological consequences of being socially deprived and disadvantaged.
    3) Intervention strategies for development of socially disadvantaged.

14) Application of Psychology to Health, Sports and Other areas :
    1) Role of motivation in improving sports performance.
    2) Personality differences between people who participate in sports and exercise programmes and those who do not.
    3) Relationship between psychological factors and physical ailments or diseases.
    4) Role of psychological factors in the prevention of and recovery from illness.
    5) Stress : causes, effects and coping.
    6) Psychological factors in political and voting behaviour.
    7) Psychological aspects of corruption.
    8) Psychology of terrorism and intervention strategies.